Thursday, September 30, 2010

Crying Wolf

Author Chip Ward has written a smart essay about wolves, the role they play in healthy ecosystems, the strong emotions that they evoke in people, and the battle lines that are inevitably drawn by any talk of wolf conservation. A brief sampling:
Just as American farmers once realized that erosion follows ignorance and learned how to plow differently, just as most of us finally learned that rivers should not be used as toxic dumps, so today we must learn that environments have the equivalent of operating systems. Predation by large carnivores is written deep into the code of much of the American landscape. Today, a rancher who expects to do business in a predator-free landscape is no more reasonable than yesterday’s industrialist who expected to use the nearest river as a sewer. Living with wolves may be a challenging proposition, but it’s hardly impossible to do -- as folks in Minnesota or Canada can attest.
These sentiments would have been heartily endorsed by Aldo Leopold.

Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Squid Pro Quo


Growing around my desk this past month is a stack of fine new books I've wanted to write about. One by one they arrived, were pored over, enjoyed...and then the struggle began to find the time to do them blog justice.

Time: there's the rub. As the days go by this colorful group has migrated around my workspace like Kipling's cannons: looming to the left of me, tipping to the right of me, but never sitting quite where I want them--square in the middle. That position is claimed by a Cintiq tablet. Lately I've found that between work and what time remains to home life the blogging wedge finds a very thin edge indeed.

Happily, though, reviewing is a pleasure I still enjoy when possible, and never so much as when writing about new work from talented people. In that spirit I take up the keyboard this week and mark those recent titles, beginning with the first picture book published by my friend David Derrick: Sid the Squid and the Search for the Perfect Job.





Dave has been storyboarding, blogging and sculpting constantly in the five years I've known him. He's one of the most energetic and intrepid artists I've ever seen in action, and he's smart enough to play to his interests when planning a project. When he grabs hold of a subject he goes all the way, and one of his fascinations is sea life. He studies it, photographs it, swims with it and best of all draws it(all these permutations visible on his website), so it's natural that his first stand-alone children's book became a sweet-natured fable about a giant squid. It's a charming, simply written story about an anthropomorphized cephalopod and the little girl who helps him find the best way he can be employed in and around the northern California bay area, winding up at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. Droll adventures ensue.


In most picture books it's the 'how' rather than the 'what' that makes it notable. Like virtually all of us in story Dave has been working on a Cintiq for some time and decided it would be interesting to use it for book illustration. While digital, his technique retains a pleasing graphic quality and a neo-impressionistic use of Photoshop paint. As far as Sid himself is concerned, it can't be easy to elicit character from a creature with little more than eyes to act with, but he manages to makes Sid very appealing. My favorite illustration is one of the giant squid dejected after having bombed out of most of his job attempts, spilling over a park bench clutching his appendages to his "chest" like knees.

It may be playing a little fast and loose to offer a legendary predator of the deep as an earnest red-orange character putting out fires, washing windows, or rescuing real-life mortal enemies like whales, but conviction can get you places. Dave clearly believes in Sid and his story and he delivers him-and us-to its end safely and sweetly. Nice job.




A detail from the endpapers for "Sid the Squid". These deep-sea portraits are among my favorite drawings, and were done in ink. The illustrations proper were all drawn digitally, via Cintiq.

Personal Style: Gothic, Punk, Vintage, Retro & Rockability

Weddings come in all shapes and sizes - and so does your personal style! I am all about the backyard, barnyard,  simple weddings as much as I am about the full scale, over the top, spend as much as you can weddings. Your wedding is about you - the couple! It should, most certainly, reflect personal style! These invites, save the date and accoutrements (oh my god I so love that word!) are very unique and very stylish: from Royal Steamline






Easy DIY Project

This easy, do-it-yourself project, comes from Ruffled! Download Printable Cupcake Pennants and then just print, cut, fold in half in a skewer or toothpick. Glue both sides. Simple and fun! :)




Friday, September 24, 2010

Birds and Drought: Crop Damage

In the wake of a drier-than-normal summer—with some areas experiencing a rainfall deficit of 5 or 6 inches—the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection has issued a drought warning for 24 counties, and a drought watch for 43 more.
http://citizensvoice.com/news/dep-issues-drought-warning-for-county-1.1017885

Among the problems caused by the drought were reports of crop damage caused by birds. Ted Dymond, the owner of Dymond Farms in Luzerne County’s Franklin Township, had this to say:
The biggest problem we had, the dry weather created a shortage of moisture for birds. We had a lot of bird damage this year, and I kind of relate that to the drought.
This anecdotal report fails to identify the crops damaged (cucumbers and beans are mentioned in the context of the report, but neither is specifically identified as a crop damaged by birds), the type or extent of damages, or the species of bird(s) responsible for damages.

Thursday, September 23, 2010

Trees of Berrien County, Michigan

Trees constitute a particular growth form (or habit) of vascular plants. Plants USDA defines a tree as follows:
Perrenial, woody plant with a single stem (trunk), normally greater than 4 to 5 meters (13 to 16 feet) in height; under certain environmental conditions, some tree species may develop a multi-stemmed or short growth form (less than 4 meters or 13 feet in height).
The trees of Berrien County constitute a subset of the conifers and dicots known from the county.

Of the 131 species listed below, 57 occur only as trees, while 74 can also be shrubs under certain conditions. These 131 species represent 54 genera, 30 families, 16 orders, and 2 classes.

Scientific and common names follow the online USDA Plants database. Species known to occur in Berrien County only as a result of human Introduction are denoted by [I]. Species for which there is a question as to their Native or Introduced origin are denoted [I?].

Species that have been determined to be of Special Plants in Michigan are denoted as follows: [E} = Endangered, [SC] = Special Concern, [T] = Threatened.

Growth habits are denoted as follows: {s} = shrub, {t} = tree. Species known to have woody stems are denoted with a {W}.

CLASS PINIPSIDA (conifers)
ORDER PINALES (pines et al.):

Family Cupressaceae (cypresses):
  • Juniperus communis, Common Juniper {s/t}
  • Juniperus virginiana, Eastern Redcedar {t}
  • Thuja occidentalis, Arborvitae {t}

    Family Pinaceae (pines):
  • Larix laricina, Tamarack {t}
  • Pinus banksiana, Jack Pine {t}
  • Pinus strobus, Eastern White Pine {t}
  • Tsuga canadensis, Eastern Hemlock {t}
  • CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA (dicots)
    ORDER CELASTRALES

    Family Aquifoliaceae (holly family):
  • Ilex (=Nemopanthus) mucronata (=mucronatus), Catberry {s/t}
  • Ilex verticillata, Common Winterberry {s/t}

    Family Celastraceae (bittersweet family):
  • Euonymus europaeus (=europaea), European Spindletree [I] {s/t}
  • Euonymus hamiltonianus (=hamiltoniana), Hamilton’s Spindletree [I] {s/t}

    ORDER CORNALES

    Family Cornaceae [including Nyssaceae] (dogwood family):
  • Cornus alternifolia, Alternateleaf Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus florida, Flowering Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus foemina, Stiff Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus rugosa, Roundleaf Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus sericea (=stolonifera), Redosier Dogwood {s/t}
  • Nyssa sylvatica, Blackgum {t}

    ORDER DIPSACALES

    Family Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family):
  • Sambucus nigra (=canadensis), Black Elderberry [I?] {s/t}
  • Sambucus racemosa, Red Elderberry {s/t}
  • Viburnum dentatum, Southern Arrow-wood {s/t}
  • Viburnum lentago, Nannyberry {s/t}
  • Viburnum nudum (=cassinoides), Withe-rod {s/t}
  • Viburnum opulus, American Cranberrybush {s/t}
  • Viburnum prunifolium, Blackhaw [SC] {s/t}

    ORDER FABALES

    Family Fabaceae [=Leguminoceae] (pea family):
  • Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud {s/t}
  • Gleditsia triacanthos, Honeylocust {s/t}
  • Gymnocladus dioicus, Kentucky Coffeetree [SC] {t}
  • Robinia hispida, Bristly Locust {s/t}
  • Robinia pseudoacacia, Black Locust {t}
  • Robinia viscosa, Clammy Locust {s/t}

    Family Betulaceae (birch family):
  • Alnus incana, Gray Alder {s/t}
  • Betula alleghaniensis, Yellow Birch {t}
  • Betula papyrifera, Paper Birch {t}
  • Betula pendula, European White Birch [I] {t}
  • Carpinus caroliniana, American Hornbeam {s/t}
  • Ostrya virginiana, Hophornbeam {s/t}

    Family Fagaceae (beech family):
  • Castanea dentate, American Chestnut^ [E] {t}
  • Fagus grandifolia, American Beech {t}
  • Quercus alba, White Oak {t}
  • Quercus bicolor, Swamp White Oak {t}
  • Quercus imbricaria, Shingle Oak {t}
  • Quercus macrocarpa, Bur Oak {s/t}
  • Quercus muehlenbergii, Chinkapin Oak {t}
  • Quercus palustris, Pin Oak {t}
  • Quercus rubra, Northern Red Oak {t}
  • Quercus velutina, Black Oak {t}

    ORDER HAMAMELIDALES

    Family Hamamelidaceae (witch-hazel family):
  • Hamamelis virginiana, American Witchhazel {s/t}

    Family Platanaceae (plane-tree family):
  • Platanus occidentalis, American Sycamore {t}

    ORDER LAURALES

    Family Lauraceae (laurel family):
  • Lindera benzoin, Northern Spicebush {s/t}
  • Sassafras albidum, Sassafras {s/t}

    ORDER MAGNOLIALES

    Family Ammonaceae (custard-apple family):
  • Asimina triloba, Pawpaw {s/t}

    Family Magnoliaceae (magnolia family):
  • Liriodendron tulipifera, Tuliptree {t}

    ORDER MALVALES

    Family Tiliaceae (linden family):
  • Tilia americana, American Basswood {t}

    ORDER RHAMNALES

    Family Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family):
  • Frangula (=Rhamnus) alnus (=frangula), Glossy Buckthorn [I] {s/t}
  • Rhamnus cathartica, Common Buckthorn [I] {s/t}

    ORDER ROSALES

    Family Rosaceae (rose family):
  • Amelanchier arborea, Common Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier interior, Pacific Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier laevis, Allegheny Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier sanguinea, Roundleaf Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Crataegus calpodendron, Pear Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus crus-galli, Cockspur Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus dodgei, Dodge’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus holmesiana, Holmes’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus margarettiae, Margarett’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus pedicellata, Scarlet Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus pringlei, Pringle’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus punctata, Dotted Hawtorhn {s/t}
  • Malus coronaria, Sweet Crab Apple {s/t}
  • Malus ioensis, Prairie Crab Apple {s/t}
  • Malus pumila, Paradise Apple [I] {t}
  • Prunus americana, American Plum {s/t}
  • Prunus avium, Sweet Cherry [I] {t}
  • Prunus domestica, European Plum [I] {t}
  • Prunus mahaleb, Mahaleb Cherry [I] {s/t}
  • Prunus pensylvanica, Pin Cherry {s/t}
  • Prunus serotina, Black Cherry {s/t}
  • Prunus virginiana, Chokecherry {s/t}
  • Pyrus communis, Common Pear [I] {t}

    ORDER RUBIALES

    Family Rubiaceae (madder family):
  • Cephalanthus occidentalis, Common Buttonbush {s/t}

    ORDER SALICALES

    Family Salicaceae (willow family):
  • Populus alba, White Poplar [I] {t}
  • Populus balsamifera, Balsam Poplar {t}
  • Populus deltoides, Eastern Cottonwood {t}
  • Populus grandidentata, Bigtooth Aspen {t}
  • Populus heterophylla, Swamp Cottonwood [E] {t}
  • Populus nigra, Lombardy Poplar [I] {t}
  • Populus tremuloides, Quacking Aspen {t}
  • Salix alba, White Willow [I] {t}
  • Salix amygdaloides, Peachleaf Willow {s/t}
  • Salix bebbiana, Bebb Willow {s/t}
  • Salix discolor, Pussy Willow {s/t}
  • Salix eriocephala, Missouri River Willow {s/t}
  • Salix exigua, Narrowleaf Willow {s/t}
  • Salix fragilis, Crack Willow [I] {t}
  • Salix lucida, Shining Willow {s/t}
  • Salix myricoides, Bayberry Willow {s/t}
  • Salix nigra, Black Willow {t}
  • Salix pentandra, Laurel Willow [I] {t}
  • Salix petiolaris, Meadow Willow {s/t}
  • Salix purpurea, Purpleosier Willow [I] {s/t}
  • Salix sericea, Silky Willow {s/t}
  • Salix serissima, Autumn Willow {s/t}

    ORDER SAPINDALES

    Family Aceraceae (maple family):
  • Acer negundo, Boxelder {t}
  • Acer platanoides, Norway Maple [I] {t}
  • Acer nigrum (=saccharum nigrum), Black Maple {t}
  • Acer rubrum, Red Maple {t}
  • Acer saccharinum, Silver Maple {t}
  • Acer saccharum, Sugar Maple {t}

    Family Anacardiaceae (sumac family):
  • Rhus pulvinata, Northern Smooth Sumac {t}
  • Rhus copallinum (=copallina), Winged Sumac {s/t}
  • Rhus glabra, Smooth Sumac {s/t}
  • Rhus typhina, Staghorn Sumac {s/t}
  • Toxicodendron vernix, Poison Sumac {s/t}

    ORDER SCROPHULARIALES

    Family Bignoniaceae (trumpet-creeper family):
  • Catalpa speciosa, Northern Catalpa {t}

    Family Oleaceae (olive family):
  • Fraxinus americana, White Ash {t}
  • Fraxinus nigra, BlackAsh {t}
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Green Ash {t}
  • Fraxinus profunda, Pumpkin Ash [T] {t}
  • Fraxinus quadrangulata, Blue Ash {t}

    ORDER URTICALES

    Family Moraceae (mulberry family):
  • Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange {s/t}
  • Morus alba, White Mulberry [I] {s/t}
  • Morus rubra, Red Mulberry [T] {t}

    Family Ulmaceae (elm family):
  • Celtis occidentalis, Common Hackberry {s/t}
  • Ulmus americana, American Elm {t}
  • Ulmus pumila, Siberian Elm [I] {s/t}
  • Ulmus rubra, Slippery Elm {t}

    Family Hippocastanaceae (horse-chestnut family):
  • Aesculus glabra, Ohio Buckeye {t}
  • Aesculus hippocastatum, Horse Chestnut [I] {t}

    Family Rutaceae (rue family):
  • Ptelea trifoliata, Common Hoptree {s/t}
  • Xanthoxylum americanum, Common Pricklyash {s/t}

    Family Simaroubaceae (quassia family):
  • Ailanthus altissima, Tree of Heaven [I] {t}

    Family Staphyleaceae (bladdernut family):
  • Staphylea trifolia, American Bladdernut {s/t}
  • Wednesday, September 22, 2010

    Vines of Berrien County, Michigan

    Credit: Oriental Bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculata), courtesy of USDA Forest Service.
    Vines constitute a particular growth form (or habit) of vascular plants. Plants USDA defines a vine as follows:
    Twining/climbing plant with relatively long stems, can be woody or herbaceous.
    The vines of Berrien County constitute a subset of the monocots and dicots known from the county.

    Of the 48 species listed below, 13 occur only as vines; 27 can also be forbs/herbs under certain conditions; 3 can be subshrubs; 2 can be shrubs; 1 can be a forb/herb or subshrub; 1 can be a subshrub or shrub; and 1 can be a forb/herb, subshrub, or shrub, depending on conditions. These 48 species represent 27 genera, 19 families, 16 orders, and 2 classes.

    Scientific and common names follow the online USDA Plants database. Species known to occur in Berrien County only as a result of human Introduction are denoted by [I]. Species for which there is a question as to their Native or Introduced origin are denoted [I?].

    Species that have been determined to be of Special Plants in Michigan are denoted as follows: [SC] = Special Concern, [T] = Threatened.

    Growth habits are denoted as follows: {f/b} = forb/herb, {ss} = subshrub [=dwarf shrub], {s} = shrub, {v} = vine (woody plus herbaceous). Species known to have woody stems are denoted with a {W}.

    CLASS LILIOPSIDA (monocots)
    ORDER LILIALES

    Family Dioscoreaceae (yams):
  • Dioscorea vollosa, Wild Yam (f/h/v}

    Family Smilacaceae (catbriers):
  • Smilax ecirrhata, Upright Carrionflower {f/h/v}
  • Smilax illinoensis, Illinois Greenbrier {f/h/v}
  • Smilax lasioneura, Blue Ridge Carrionflower {f/h/v}
  • Smilax rotundifolia, Roundleaf Greenbrier (s/v}
  • Smilax tamnoides, Bristly Greenbrier (s/v} {W}
  • CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA (dicots)
    ORDER CELASTRALES

    Family Celastraceae (bittersweet family):
  • Celastrus orbiculata, Oriental Bittersweet [I] {v} {W}
  • Celastrus scandens, American Bittersweet {v} {W}
  • Euonymus obovatus (=obovata), Running Strawberry Bush {ss/s/v}

    ORDER DIPSACALES

    Family Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family):
  • Lonicera dioica, Limber Honeysuckle {v} {W}
  • Lonicera japonica, Japanese Honeysuckle [I] {v} {W}

    ORDER GENTIANALES

    Family Apocynaceae (dogbane family):
  • Vinca minor, Common Periwinkle [I] {f/h/v} {W}

    ORDER PAPAVERALES

    Family Fumariaceae (fumitory family):
  • Adlumia fungosa, Allegheny Vine [SC] {f/h/v}

    ORDER POLYGALALES

    Family Polygonaceae (buckwheat family):
  • Polygonum arifolium, Halberdleaf Tearthumb {f/h/v}
  • Polygonum cilinode, Fringed Black Bindweed {f/h/v}
  • Polygonum convolvulus, Black Bindweed [I] {f/h/v}
  • Polygonum sagittatum, Arrowleaf Tearthum {f/h/v}
  • Polygonum scandens, Climbing False Buckwheat [I?] {f/h/v}

    ORDER RANUNCULALES

    Family Menispermaceae (moonseed family):
  • Menispermum canadense, Common Moonseed {v} {W}

    Family Ranunculaceae (buttercup family):
  • Clematis virginiana, Devil’s Darning Needles {v} {W}

    ORDER RHAMNALES

    Family Vitaceae (grape family):
  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia (including inserta), Virginia Creeper {v} {W}
  • Vitis aestivalis, Summer Grape {v} {W}
  • Vitis labrusca, Fox Grape {v} {W}
  • Vitis riparia, Riverbank Grape {v} {W}
  • Vitis vulpina, Frost Grape [T] {v} {W}

    ORDER ROSALES

    Family Rosaceae (rose family):
  • Rosa multiflora, Multiflora Rose [I] {ss/v} {W}
  • Rosa setigera, Climbing Rose {ss/v} {W}
  • Rubus laciniatus, Cutleaf Blackberry [I] {ss/v} {W}

    ORDER RUBIALES

    Family Rubiaceae (madder family):
  • Galium aparine, Stickywilly {f/h/v}
  • Galium trifidum, Threepetal Bedstraw {f/h/v}
  • Galium verum, Yellow Spring Bedstraw [I] {f/h/v}

    ORDER SAPINDALES

    Family Anacardiaceae (sumac family):
  • Toxicodendron radicans, Eastern Poison Ivy {f/h/ss/s/v} {W}

    ORDER SCROPHULARIALES

    Family Bignoniaceae (trumpet-creeper family):
  • Campsis radicans, Trumpet Creeper {v} {W}

    ORDER SOLANALES

    Family Convolvulaceae (morning-glory family):
  • Calystegia sepsium, Hedge False Bindweed [I?] {f/h/v}
  • Calystegia silvatica, Shortstalk False Bindweed [I?] {f/h/v}
  • Convolvulus arvensis, Field Bindweed [I] {v}
  • Ipomoea pandurata, Man of the Earth [T] {f/h/v}
  • Ipomoea purpurea, Tall Morning-glory [I] {f/h/v}

    Family Cuscutaceae (dodder family):
  • Cuscuta campestris, Fiveangled Dodder^ [SC] {f/h/v}
  • Cuscuta cephalanthi, Buttonbush Dodder {f/h/v}
  • Cuscuta glomerata, Rope Dodder [SC (last observed 1906)] {f/h/v}
  • Cuscuta grovoni, Scaldweed {f/h/v}

    Family Solanaceae (potato family):
  • Solanum dulcamara, Climbing Nightshade [I] {f/h/ss/v}

    ORDER URTICALES

    Family Cannabaceae (hemp family):
  • Humulus lupulus, Common Hop [I?] {f/h/v}

    ORDER VIOLALES

    Family Cucurbitaceae (cucumber family):
  • Citrullus lanatus, Watermelon [I] {f/h/v}
  • Cucurbita foetidissima, Missouri Gourd {f/h/v}
  • Echinocystis lobata, Wild Cucumber {f/h/v}
  • Sicyos angulatus, Oneseed Bur Cucumber {f/h/v}
  • Tuesday, September 21, 2010

    It's Giveaway Time!

    THIS GIVEAWAY HAS NOW CLOSED!

    I have been kind of slacking on my giveaways - not for any good reason (except that I have been waiting on the delivery of some things!). You all have been very patient! I have been thinking about this giveaway for some time and finally I got everything together to post about it. Yay.

    Quite awhile ago I posted about Etsy seller LilaFrances - actually the post was "Another Fab Find(December 6th, 2009). LilaFrances continues to make one of my favorite items - the original personalized wire hanger for brides. Since my original post, I have seen 100's of real bride photographs using LilaFrances hangers and now it's your turn to WIN one of your own! The lucky winner will also get a bride hankie on a wire hanger!


    The Original Silver Lingerie, Wedding Dress Hanger
    • You must choose to follow my blog PUBLICALLY
    • For a SECOND entry blog about this contest and leave an ADDITIONAL comment to let me know you did that with a link to the post (I will check!)
    • For a THIRD entry twitter about this contest and leave an ADDITIONAL comment to let me know you did that with a link to the post! You can find my twitter page here
    5 BONUS ENTRIES: Grab my Blog Button and add it to your page (leave an additional post with link to let me know you did this!) and get FIVE bonus entries!




    That means you have the opportunity to get 8 entries into this contest if you want to win! Yay!

    This giveaway will end on: October 5th at 5pm PST and the winner will be posted shortly there after!


    What you win: 1 lucky winner will receive a personalized hanger from LilaFrances AND a hankie folded in the shape of a bridal gown on a little wire hanger!

    Value of giveaway (including shipping to winner): $50.00


    This giveaway is open to EVERYONE!!!! (I love when I have a giveaway I can open up WORLDWIDE...so take advantage now folks!) 


    Birds and Drought: Palila Follow-Up

    As a follow-up to my previous post about the Palila (an Endangered Hawaiian honeycreeper) and drought, I here present quantitative data on the impact of drought on Palila breeding efforts.

    Lindsey et al. (1995) presented the results of a 7-year (1987-1993) study of annual survival, age, and sex ratios of the Palila on Mauna Kea, and offered the following observations on the impacts of drought:
    The number of nesting attempts by Palila appeared to be influenced by annual differences in precipitation and differences in the availability of immature mamane pods [the principal food source] prior to and during the Palila breeding season (van Riper 1980; P. Banko, unpubl. data). For example, we located 71 Palila nests in our study area during 1991, a year of relatively high mamane pod production, compared to 52 nests during the previous year when mamane pods were moderately available (T. Pratt, unpubl. data). In 1992, when the drought caused an almost complete failure in the mamane crop, we located only five Palila nests [a 92 percent reduction from the average of the previous 2 years]. Adult Palila had higher survival in years when mamane production [and presumably precipitation] was relatively high.
    "Hawaii is suffering through an unprecedented drought", with El Nino conditions the last two years having "added new misery to a half-century of declining rainfall on the tropical island chain."

    Firefighters fear that "extreme wildfires could destroy native ecosystems and create devastating long-term environmental damage."

    Sources:
    Lindsey, G. D., S. G. Fancy, M. H. Reynolds, T. K. Pratt, K. A. Wilson, P. C. Banko, and J. D. Jacobi. 1995. Population structure and survival of the Palila. Condor 97: 528-535. URL:
    http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Condor/files/issues/v097n02/p0528-p0535.pdf

    van Riper, C., III. 1980b. The phenology of the dry-land forests of Mauna Kea, Hawaii, and the impact of recent environmental perturbations. Biotropica 12: 282-291. URL: http://www.jstor.org/pss/2387700 [Abstract only]

    Monday, September 20, 2010

    Blue Velvet Cupcakes


    You read that right! Blue Velvet! Anyone else over red velvet? There are other colors in the rainbow you know! I came across this amazing blog this morning and I am seriously in baking mode right now! What an inspiration Heather Baird is!



    You can get the recipe and how to make these amazing little guys here! But, sweet fans beware! You will find yourself spending a lot of time at Heather's blog (guilty admission inserted here - I did!). I saved quite a few recipes and am now a happy follower!











    Win a Williams-Sonoma Gift Card!

    Williams-Sonoma Logo

    Wedding Bee is offering a sponsored giveaway for a $250 Williams-Sonoma gift card! The giveaway starts today and ends on the 26th! You just need to create (or add an item to an existing registry) a Williams-Sonoma registry and tell the folks over at Wedding Bee the moment you knew your other half was "the one"! Pretty easy...and pretty fun!


    Here are the details:


    Monday September 20, create a registry at Williams-Sonoma. If you’ve already registered with Williams-Sonoma just add another item to your registry. Once you’ve created your registry or added a new item, leave a comment at this post on Wedding Bee with your “moment I knew he/she was the one” story. You’ll receive an extra entry if you include a link to your public registry in your comment. One lucky reader will be selected using a random generator. Pretty cool little giveaway! Good luck, friends! :)


    Shrubs of Berrien County, Michigan

    Shrubs constitute a particular growth form (or habit) of vascular plants. Plants USDA defines a shrub as follows:
    Perennial, multi-stemmed woody plant that is usually less than 4 to 5 meters (13 to 16 feet) in height. Shrubs typically have several stems arising from or near the ground, but may be taller than 5 meters or single-stemmed under certain environmental conditions.
    The shrubs of Berrien County constitute a subset of the conifers, monocots, and dicots known from the county. The stems and roots of shrubs are typically woody in texture rather than herbaceous.

    Of the 129 species listed below, 36 are known only as shrubs; 69 can also be trees under certain conditions; 14 can be subshrubs; 5 can be forbs/herbs or subshrubs; 3 can be a subshrubs or vines; 2 can be forbs/herbs, subshrubs, or vines, depending on conditions; and 1 can be a graminoid or subshrub. These 130 species represent 62 genera, 24 orders, 32 families, and 3 classes.

    Scientific and common names follow the online USDA Plants database. Species known to occur in Berrien County only as a result of human Introduction are denoted by [I]. Species for which there is a question as to their Native or Introduced origin are denoted [I?].

    Species that have been determined to be of Special Concern in Michigan are denoted as [SC].

    Growth habits are denoted as follows: {f/b} = forb/herb, {g} = graminoid, {ss} = subshrub [=dwarf shrub], {s} = shrub, {t} = tree, {v} = vine (woody plus herbaceous).

    CLASS PINOPSIDA (conifers)
    ORDER PINALES

    Family Cupressaceae
    (cypresses):
  • Juniperus communis, Common Juniper {s/t}

    ORDER TAXALES

    Family Taxaceae (yews)
  • Taxus canadensis, Canada Yew {s}
  • CLASS LILIOPSIDA (monocots)
    ORDER AGAVALES

    Family Agavaceae (century-plants):
  • Yucca filamentosa, Adam’s Needle (f/h/ss/s}

    ORDER CYPERALES

    Family Poaceae (grasses):
  • Phragmites australis, Common Reed (g/ss/s}

    ORDER LILIALES

    Family Smilaceae (catbriers):
  • Smilax rotundifolia, Roundleaf Greenbrier (s/v}
  • Smilax tamnoides, Bristly Greenbrier (s/v}
  • CLASS MAGNOLIOPSIDA (dicots)
    ORDER CARYOPHYLLALES

    Family Cactaceae (cactus family):
  • Opuntia humifusa, Devil’s-tongue {s}

    ORDER CELASTRALES

    Family Aquifoliaceae (holly family):
  • Ilex (=Nemopanthus) mucronata (=mucronatus), Catberry {s/t}
  • Ilex verticillata, Common Winterberry {s/t}

    Family Celastraceae (bittersweet family):
  • Euonymus alatus (=alata), Burningbush [I] {s}
  • Euonymus europaeus (=europaea), European Spindletree [I] {s/t}
  • Euonymus hamiltonianus (=hamiltoniana), Hamilton’s Spindletree [I] {s/t}
  • Euonymus obovatus (=obovata), Running Strawberry Bush {ss/s/v}

    ORDER CORNALES

    Family Cornaceae [including Nyssaceae] (dogwood family):
  • Cornus alternifolia, Alternateleaf Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus amomum, Silky Dogwood {s}
  • Cornus canadensis, Bunchberry Dogwood {f/h/ss/s}
  • Cornus florida, Flowering Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus foemina, Stiff Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus rugosa, Roundleaf Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus sericea (=stolonifera), Redosier Dogwood {s/t}

    ORDER DIPSACALES

    Family Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family):
  • Diervilla lonicera, Northern Bush Honeysuckle {s}
  • Lonicera canadensis, American Fly Honeysuckle {s}
  • Lonicera maackii, Amur Honeysuckle [I] {s}
  • Lonicera morrowii, Morrow’s Honeysuckle [I] {s}
  • Lonicera tatarica, Tatarian Honeysuckle [I] {s}
  • Lonicera xylosteum, Dwarf Honeysuckle [I] {s}
  • Sambucus nigra (=canadensis), Black Elderberry [I?] {s/t}
  • Sambucus racemosa, Red Elderberry {s/t}
  • Symphoricarpos albus, Common Snowberry {ss/s}
  • Symphoricarpos orbiculatus, Coralberry {s}
  • Viburnum acerifolium, Mapleleaf Viburnum {ss/s}
  • Viburnum dentatum, Southern Arrow-wood {s/t}
  • Viburnum lentago, Nannyberry {s/t}
  • Viburnum nudum (=cassinoides), Withe-rod {s/t}
  • Viburnum opulus, American Cranberrybush {s/t}
  • Viburnum prunifolium, Blackhaw [SC] {s/t}
  • Viburnum rafinesqueanum (=rafinesquianum), Downy Arrow-wood {s}

    ORDER ERICALES

    Family Ericaceae (heath family):
  • Andromeda polifolia (=glaucophylla), Bog Rosemary {ss/s}
  • Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Kinnickinnick {ss/s}
  • Chamaedaphne calyculata, Leatherleaf {s}
  • Epigaea repens, Trailing Arbutus {ss/s}
  • Gaultheria procumbens, Eastern Teaberry {ss/s}
  • Gaylussacia baccata, Black Huckleberry {s}
  • Vaccinium angustifolium, Lowbush Blueberry {ss/s}
  • Vaccinium corymbosum, Highbush Cranberry {s}
  • Vaccinium macrocarpon, Cranberry {ss/s}
  • Vaccinium oxycoccos, Small Cranberry {ss/s}
  • Vaccinium pallidum, Blue Ridge Blueberry {ss/s}

    ORDER FABALES

    Family Fabaceae [=Leguminoceae] (pea family):
  • Amorpha canescens, Leadplant^ [SC] {ss/s}
  • Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud {s/t}
  • Gleditsia triacanthos, Honeylocust {s/t}
  • Robinia hispida, Bristly Locust {s/t}
  • Robinia viscosa, Clammy Locust {s/t}

    Family Betulaceae (birch family):
  • Alnus incana, Gray Alder {s/t}
  • Betula pumila, Bog Birch {s}
  • Carpinus caroliniana, American Hornbeam {s/t}
  • Corylus americana, American Hazelnut {s}
  • Ostrya virginiana, Hophornbeam {s/t}

    Family Fagaceae (beech family):
  • Quercus macrocarpa, Bur Oak {s/t}

    ORDER HAMAMELIDALES

    Family Hamamelidaceae (witch-hazel family):
  • Hamamelis virginiana, American Witchhazel {s/t}

    ORDER LAURALES

    Family Lauraceae (laurel family):
  • Lindera benzoin, Northern Spicebush {s/t}
  • Sassafras albidum, Sassafras {s/t}

    ORDER MAGNOLIALES

    Family Ammonaceae (custard-apple family):
  • Asimina triloba, Pawpaw {s/t}

    ORDER MYRICALES

    Family Myricaceae (bayberry family):
  • Comptonia peregrina, Sweet Fern {ss/s}

    ORDER MYRTALES

    Family Lythraceae (loosestrife family):
  • Decodon verticillatus, Swamp Loosestrife {ss/s}

    Family Thymelaeaceae (mezereum family):
  • Dirca palustris, Eastern Leatherwood {s}

    ORDER RANUNCULALES

    Family Berberidaceae (barberry family):
  • Berberis thunbergii, Japanese Barberry [I] {s}
  • Berberis vulgaris, Common Barberry [I] {s}

    ORDER RHAMNALES

    Family Elaeagnaceae (oleaster family):
  • Elaeagnus umbellata, Autumn Olive [I] {s}
  • Shepherdia canadensis, Russet Buffaloberry {s}

    Family Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family):
  • Ceanothus americanus, New Jersey Tea {ss/s}
  • Frangula (=Rhamnus) alnus (=frangula), Glossy Buckthorn [I] {s/t}
  • Rhamnus alnifolia, Alderleaf Buckthorn {s}
  • Rhamnus cathartica, Common Buckthorn [I] {s/t}

    ORDER ROSALES

    Family Grossulariaceae (currant family):
  • Ribes americanum, American Black Currant {s}
  • Ribes aureum (=odoratum), Golden Currant {s}
  • Ribes cynosbati, Eastern Prickly Gooseberry {s}
  • Ribes hirtellum, Hairystem Gooseberry {s}

    Family Rosaceae (rose family):
  • Amelanchier arborea, Common Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier interior, Pacific Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier laevis, Allegheny Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier sanguinea, Roundleaf Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Crataegus calpodendron, Pear Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus crus-galli, Cockspur Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus dodgei, Dodge’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus holmesiana, Holmes’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus margarettiae, Margarett’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus pedicellata, Scarlet Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus pringlei, Pringle’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus punctata, Dotted Hawtorhn {s/t}
  • Malus coronaria, Sweet Crab Apple {s/t}
  • Malus ioensis, Prairie Crab Apple {s/t}
  • Photonia (=Aronia) floribunda (=prunifolia), Purple Chokeberry {s}
  • Physocarpus opulifolius, Common Ninebark {s}
  • Prunus americana, American Plum {s/t}
  • Prunus mahaleb, Mahaleb Cherry [I] {s/t}
  • Prunus pensylvanica, Pin Cherry {s/t}
  • Prunus pumila, Sandcherry {s}
  • Prunus serotina, Black Cherry {s/t}
  • Prunus virginiana, Chokecherry {s/t}

    ORDER RUBIALES

    Family Rubiaceae (madder family):
  • Cephalanthus occidentalis, Common Buttonbush {s/t}

    ORDER SALICALES

    Family Salicaceae (willow family):
  • Salix amygdaloides, Peachleaf Willow {s/t}
  • Salix bebbiana, Bebb Willow {s/t}
  • Salix candida, Sageleaf Willow {s}
  • Salix cordata, Heartleaf Willow {s}
  • Salix discolor, Pussy Willow {s/t}
  • Salix eriocephala, Missouri River Willow {s/t}
  • Salix exigua, Narrowleaf Willow {s/t}
  • Salix humilis, Prairie Willow {s}
  • Salix lucida, Shining Willow {s/t}
  • Salix myricoides, Bayberry Willow {s/t}
  • Salix petiolaris, Meadow Willow {s/t}
  • Salix purpurea, Purpleosier Willow [I] {s/t}
  • Salix sericea, Silky Willow {s/t}
  • Salix serissima, Autumn Willow {s/t}

    ORDER SAPINDALES

    Family Anacardiaceae (sumac family):
  • Rhus copallinum (=copallina), Winged Sumac {s/t}
  • Rhus glabra, Smooth Sumac {s/t}
  • Rhus typhina, Staghorn Sumac {s/t}
  • Toxicodendron radicans, Eastern Poison Ivy {f/h/ss/s/v}
  • Toxicodendron vernix, Poison Sumac {s/t}

    Family Rutaceae (rue family):
  • Ptelea trifoliata, Common Hoptree {s/t}
  • Xanthoxylum americanum, Common Pricklyash {s/t}

    Family Staphyleaceae (bladdernut family):
  • Staphylea trifolia, American Bladdernut {s/t}

    ORDER SCROPHULARIALES

    Family Oleaceae (olive family):
  • Ligustrum obtusifolium, Border Privet [I] {s}
  • Ligustrum vulgare, European Privet [I] {s}
  • Syringa vulgaris, Common Lilac [I] {s}

    ORDER SOLANALES

    Family Polemoniaceae (phlox family):
  • Phlox divaricata, Wild Blue Phlox {f/h/ss/s}
  • Phlox nivalis, Trailing Phlox {f/h/ss/s}
  • Phlox pilosa, Downy Phlox {f/h/ss/s}
  • Phlox subulata, Moss Phlox {f/h/ss/s}


  • Last Revised: 9/21/2010.

    Sunday, September 19, 2010

    Birds and Drought: Palila

    The Palila (Loxioides bailleui), an Endangered forest bird endemic to the “big island” of Hawaii, has declined 75 percent since 2003, to a population of 1,200 birds in 2010.

    Photo credit: U.S. Geological Survey.
    According to government officials, the Palila’s fate is due to a combination of factors:
  • impacts of feral goats and sheep (ungulates) on the mamane trees that the birds depend on for much of their diet,

  • effects of severe drought on the bird’s food supply, and

  • predation by nonnative feral cats.
  • In response to the crisis, conservation agencies have proposed a monumental project to erect a fence encircling the entirety of the designated Critical Habitat for Palila on Mauna Kea, with the goal of excluding exotic ungulates from the area.

    Saturday, September 18, 2010

    Dicots of Berrien County, Michigan

    The dicots, short for dicotyledons (Class Magnoliopsida), are one of two classes of flowering plants, or angiosperms, within the Kingdom Plantae, the other being the monocots, or monocotyledons (Class Liliopsida). The major distinguishing features between monocots and dicots are discussed here.

    Dicots number somewhat more than 200,000 species worldwide, with approximately 1,800 known from Michigan. I here list 999 species of dicots attributed to Berrien County (approximately 55 percent of the Michigan dicot flora) by the Online Atlas of Michigan Plants; these 999 species represent 42 orders, 103 families, and 456 genera.

    As a class, the dicots are much more diverse than the monocots. The five most abundant dicot families—Asteraceae (asters), Rosaceae (roses), Fabaceae (peas), Brassicaceae (mustards), and Lamiaceae (mints)—account for just 38 percent of the dicot flora of Berrien County. By contrast, the two most abundant monocot families—Poaceae (grasses) and Cyperaceae (sedges)—account for a whopping 80 percent of the county’s monocot flora.

    In the following list, scientific and common names follow the USDA Plants database. Species known to occur in Berrien County only as a result of human Introduction are denoted by [I]. Species for which there is a question as to their Native or Introduced origin are denoted [I?].

    The status of species determined to be Special Plants in Michigan are denoted as follows: [T] = Threatened, [SC] = Special Concern, [X] = possibly Extirpated.

    The growth habits of certain species are denoted as follows: {f/b} = forb/herb, {ss} = subshrub [=dwarf shrub], {s} = shrub, {t} = tree, {v} = vine (woody plus herbaceous); plants that occur only as forbs/herbs or are not so designated.

    A hat (^) denotes the handful of species attributed to Berrien County in Michigan’s Special Plants database that are not also represented in the Online Atlas of Michigan Plants.
    ORDER APIALES

    Family Apiaceae [=Umbelliferaceae] (carrot family):
  • Aethusa cynapium, Fool’s Parsley [I]
  • Anethum graveolens, Dill [I]
  • Angelica atropurpurea, Purplestem Angelica
  • Berula erecta, Cutleaf Waterparsnip [T]
  • Chaerophyllum procumbens, Spreading Chervil
  • Cicuta bulbifera, Bulblet-bearing Water Hemlock
  • Cicuta maculata, Spotted Water Hemlock
  • Conium maculatum, Poison Hemlock [I]
  • Cryptotaenia canadensis, Canadian Honewort
  • Daucus carota, Queen Anne’s Lace
  • Erigenia bulbosa, Harbinger of Spring
  • Eryngium yuccifolium, Button Eryngo [T]
  • Heracleum maximum, Common Cowparsnip
  • Hydrocotyle umbellata, Mayflower Marshpennywort
  • Osmorhiza claytonii, Clayton’s Sweetroot
  • Osmorhiza longistylis, Longstyle Sweetroot
  • Oxypolis rigidior, Stiff Cowbane
  • Pastinaca sativa, Wild Parsnip [I]
  • Sanicula canadensis, Canadian Blacksnakeroot
  • Sanicula marilandica, Maryland Sanicle
  • Sanicula odorata, Clustered Blacksnakeroot
  • Sanicula trifoliata, Largefruit Blacksnakeroot
  • Sium suave, Hemlock Waterparsnip
  • Taenidia integerrima, Yellow Pimpernel
  • Thaspium barbinode, Hairyjoint Meadowparsnip
  • Thaspium trifoliatum, Purple Meadowparsnip
  • Torilis japonica, Erect Hedgeparsley [I]
  • Zizia aurea, Golden Zizia

    Family Araliaceae (ginseng family):
  • Aralia hispida, Bristly Sarsaparilla
  • Aralia nudicaulis, Wild Sarsaparilla
  • Aralia racemosa, American Spikenard
  • Panax quinquefolius, American Ginseng [T]
  • Panax trifolius, Dwarf Ginseng

    ORDER ARISTOLOCHIALES

    Family Aristolochiaceae (birthwort family):
  • Aristolochia serpentaria, Virginia Snakeroot [T]
  • Asarum canadense, Canadian Wildginger
  • Asclepias amplexicaulis, Clasping Milkweed
  • Asclepias excaltata, Poke Milkweed
  • Asclepias incarnata, Swamp Milkweed
  • Asclepias purpurascens, Purple Milkweed [SC]
  • Asclepias syriaca, Common Milkweed
  • Asclepias tuberosa, Butterfly Milkweed
  • Asclepias verticillata, Whorled Milkweed
  • Asclepias viridiflora, Green Comet Milkweed
  • Cynanchum (=Vincetoxicum) rossicum, European Swallow-wort [I]

    ORDER ASTERALES

    Family Asteraceae [=Compositae] (aster family):
  • Achillea filipendulina, Fernleaf Yarrow [I]
  • Achillea millefolium, Common Yarrow [I?]
  • Ageratina (=Eupatorium) altissima (=rugosum), White Snakeroot
  • Ambrosia artemisiifolia, Annual Ragweed
  • Ambrosia psilostachya, Cuman Ragweed
  • Ambrosia trifida, Great Ragweed
  • Antennaria howellii, Howell’s Pussytoes
  • Antennaria neglecta, Field Pussytoes
  • Antennaria parlinii, Parlin’s Pussytoes
  • Anthemis arvensis, Corn Chamomile [I]
  • Anthemis cotula, Stinking Chamomile [I]
  • Arctium minus, Lesser Burdock [I]
  • Arnoglossum (=Cacalia) atriplicifolium (=atriplicifolia), Pale Indian Plantain
  • Arnoglossum (=Cacalia) plantagineum (=plantaginea), Groovestem Indian Plantain [SC]
  • Artemisia biennis, Biennial Wormwood [I]
  • Artemisia campestris, Field Sagewort
  • Artemisia ludoviciana, White Sagebrush
  • Artemisia vulgaris, Common Wormwood [I?]
  • Bellis perennis, Lawndaisy [I]
  • Bidens (=Megalodonta) beckii, Beck’s Water-marigold
  • Bidens cernus (=cernuus), Nodding Beggarticks
  • Bidens connatus, Purplestem Beggarticks
  • Bidens coronatus, Crowned Beggarticks
  • Bidens discoidea (=discoideus), Small Beggarticks
  • Bidens frondosa (=frondosus), Devil’s Beggarticks
  • Bidens tripartite (=comosus), Threelobe Beggarticks
  • Bidens vulgate (=vulgatus), Big Devils Beggarticks
  • Brickellia (=Kuhnia) eupatorioides, False Boneset [SC]
  • Centaurea stoebe, Spotted Knapweed [I]
  • Chondrilla juncea, Rush Skeletonweed [I]
  • Cichorium intybus, Chicory [I]
  • Cirsium altissimum, Tall Thistle
  • Cirsium arvense, Canada Thistle [I]
  • Cirsium discolor, Field Thistle
  • Cirsium hillii, Hill’s Thistle [SC (last observed 1932)]
  • Cirsium muticum, Swamp Thistle
  • Cirsium pitcheri, Sand Dune Thistle [T]
  • Cirsium vulgare, Bull Thistle [I]
  • Conoclinium (=Eupatorium) coelestinum, Blue Mistflower
  • Conyza canadensis, Canadian Horseweed
  • Coreopsis grandflora, Largeflower Tickseed
  • Coreopsis lanceolata, Lanceleaf Tickseed
  • Coreopsis palmata, Stiff Tickseed [T]
  • Coreopsis tripteris, Tall Tickseed
  • Crepis tectorum, Narrowleaf Hawksbeard [I]
  • Doellingeria (=Aster) umbellate (=umbellatus), Parasol Whitetop
  • Echinacea pallida, Pale Purple Coneflower
  • Echinops sphaerocephalus, Great Globethistle [I]
  • Erechtites hieraciifolia, American Burnweed
  • Erigeron annuus, Eastern Daisy Fleabane
  • Erigeron philadelphicus, Philadelphia Fleabane
  • Erigeron pulchellus, Robin’s Plantain
  • Erigeron strigosus, Prairie Fleabane
  • Eupatoriadelphus (=Eupatorium) fistulosa (=fistulosum), Trumpetweed [T]
  • Eupatoriadelphus (=Eupatorium) maculates (=maculatum), Spotted Trumpetweed
  • Eupatorium altissimum, Tall Thoroughwort
  • Eupatorium perfoliatum, Common Boneset
  • Eupatorium purpureum, Sweetscented Joe Pye Weed
  • Eupatorium serotinum, Lateflowering Thoroughwort
  • Eurybia (=Aster) macrophylla (=macrophyllus), Bigleaf Aster
  • Euthamia graminifolia, Flat-top Goldentop
  • Euthamia gymnospermoides (=remota), Texas Goldentop
  • Gaillardia pulchella, Firewheel [I]
  • Galinsoga quadriradiata, Shaggy Soldier [I]
  • Gamochaeta (=Gnaphalium) purpurea (=purpureum), Spoonleaf Purple Everlasting
  • Gnaphalium uliginosum, Marsh Cudweed [I]
  • Grindelia squarrosa, Curlycup Gumweed
  • Grindelia (=Haplopappus) papposa (=ciliatus), Spanish Gold
  • Helenium autumnale, Common Sneezeweed
  • Helianthus annuus, Common Sunflower
  • Helianthus decapetalus, Thinleaf Sunflower
  • Helianthus divaricatus, Woodland Sunflower
  • Helianthus giganteus, Giant Sunflower
  • Helianthus hirsutus, Hairy Sunflower^ [SC]
  • Helianthus mollis, Ashy Sunflower [T (last observed 1939)]
  • Helianthus occidentalis, Fewleaf Sunflower
  • Helianthus petiolaris, Prairie Sunflower
  • Helianthus tuberosus, Jerusalem Artichoke
  • Heliopsis helianthoides, Smooth Oxeye
  • Hieracium aurantiacum, Orange Hawkweed [I]
  • Hieracium caespitosum, Meadow Hawkweed [I]
  • Hieracium flagellare,
  • Hieracium gronovii, Queendevil
  • Hieracium kalmii, Kalm’s Hawkweed
  • Hieracium longipilum, Hairy Hawkweed
  • Hieracium paniculatum, Allegheny Hawkweed [SC]
  • Hieracium piloselloides, Mouse-ear Hawkweed [I]
  • Hieracium scabrum, Rough Hawkweed
  • Hypochaeris radicata, Hairy Cat’s Ear [I]
  • Inula helenium, Elecampane Inula [I]
  • Krigia biflora, Twoflower Dwarfdandelion
  • Krigia virginica, Virginia Dwarfdandelion
  • Lactuca biennis, Tall Blue Lettuce
  • Lactuca canadensis, Canada Lettuce
  • Lactuca hirsuta, Hairy Lettuce
  • Lactuca serriola, Prickly Lettuce [I]
  • Lapsana communis, Common Nipplewort [I]
  • Liatris aspersa, Tall Blazing Star
  • Liatris scariosa, Devil’s Bite
  • Liatris spicata, Dense Blazing Star
  • Leucanthemum (=Chrysanthemum) vulgare (=leucanthemum), Oxeye Daisy [I]
  • Matricaria discoidea, Disc Mayweed [I]
  • Oligoneuron (=Solidago) ohioense (=ohioensis), Ohio Goldenrod
  • Oligoneuron (=Solidago) riddellii, Riddell’s Goldenrod
  • Oligoneuron (=Solidago) rigidum (=rigida), Stiff Goldenrod
  • Packera (=Senecio) aurea (=aureus), Golden Ragwort
  • Packera (=Senecio) glabella (=glabellus), Butterweed
  • Packera (=Senecio) paupercula (=pauperculus), Balsam Groundsel
  • Packera (=Senecio) plattensis, Prairie Groundsel
  • Picris hieracioides, Hawkweed Oxtongue [I?]
  • Polymnia canadensis, Whiteflower Leafcup
  • Polymnia uvedalius (=uvedalia), Hairy Leafcup [T]
  • Prenanthes alba, White Rattlesnakeroot
  • Prenanthes altissima, Tall Rattlesnakeroot
  • Prenanthes racemosa, Purple Rattlesnakeroot
  • Pseudognaphalium (=Gnaphalium) macounii, MaCoun’s Cudweed
  • Pseudognaphalium (=Gnaphalium) obtusifolium, Rabbit-tobacco
  • Ratibida columnifera, Upright Prairie Coneflower
  • Ratibida pinnata, Pinnate Prairie Coneflower
  • Rudbeckia fulgida, Orange Coneflower
  • Rudbeckia hirta, Blackeyed Susan
  • Rudbeckia laciniata, Cutleaf Coneflower
  • Rudbeckia triloba, Browneyed Susan
  • Senecio vulgaris, Old-man-in-the-spring [I]
  • Silphium integrifolium, Wholeleaf Rosinweed [T]
  • Silphium lacinatum, Compassplant [T]
  • Silphium perfoliatum, Cup Plant [T]
  • Silphium terebinthinaceum, Prairie Rosinweed
  • Solidago altissima, Canada Goldenrod
  • Solidago caesia, Wreath Goldenrod
  • Solidago canadensis, Canada Goldenrod
  • Solidago flexicaulis, Zigzag Goldenrod
  • Solidago gigantea, Giant Goldenrod
  • Solidago hispida, Hairy Goldenrod
  • Solidago juncea, Early Goldenrod
  • Solidago nemoralis, Gray Goldenrod
  • Solidago patula, Roundleaf Goldenrod
  • Solidago rugosa, Wrinkleleaf Goldenrod
  • Solidago sempervirens, Seaside Goldenrod
  • Solidago simplex, Mt. Albert Goldenrod
  • Solidago speciosa, Showy Goldenrod
  • Solidago uliginosa, Bog Goldenrod
  • Solidago ulmifolia, Elmleaf Goldenrod
  • Sonchus arvensis, Field Sowthistle [I]
  • Sonchus asper, Spiny Sowthistle [I]
  • Sonchus oleraceus, Common Sowthistle [I]
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) borealis, Northern Bog Aster
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) ciliatum (=brachyactis), Rayless Alkali Aster
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) cordifolium (=cordifolius & sagittifolius), Common Blue Wood Aster
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) dumosum (=dumosus), Rice Button Aster
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) ericoides, White Heath Aster
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) laeve (=laevis), Smooth Blue Aster
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) lanceolatum (=lanceolatus), White Panicle Aster
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) lateriflorum (=lateriflorus), Calico Aster
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) novae-angliae, New England Aster
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) ontarionis, Bottomland Aster
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) oolentangiense (=oolentangiensis), Skyblue Aster
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) pilusum (=pilosus), Hairy White Oldfield Aster
  • Symphyotrichum (=Aster) puniceum (=firmus & puniceus), Purplestar Aster
  • Tanacetum (=Chrysanthemum) balsamita, Costmary [I]
  • Tanacetum (=Chrysanthemum) parthenium, Feverfew [I]
  • Tanacetum vulgare, Common Tansy [I]
  • Taraxacum laevigatum (=erythrospermum), Rock Dandelion [I]
  • Taraxacum officinale, Common Dandelion [I?]
  • Tragopogon dubius, Yellow Salsify [I]
  • Tragopogon lamottei (=pratensis), Jack-go-to-bed-at-noon [I]
  • Tragopogon porrifolius, Salsify [I]
  • Tussilago farfara, Coltsfoot [I]
  • Verbesina alternifolia, Wingstem
  • Vernonia gigantean, Giant Ironweed
  • Vernonia missurica, Missouri Ironweed
  • Xanthium strumarium, Rough Cocklebur

    ORDER CAMPANULALES

    Family Campanulaceae (bellflower family):
  • Campanula aparinoides, Marsh Bellflower
  • Campanula rotundifolia, Bluebell Bellflower
  • Campanulastrium (=Campanula) americanum (=americana), American Bellflower
  • Lobelia cardinalis, Cardinalflower
  • Lobelia inflata, Indian-tobacco
  • Lobelia kalmii, Ontario Lobelia
  • Lobelia siphilitica, Great Blue Lobelia
  • Lobelia spicata, Palespike Lobelia
  • Triodanis perfoliata, Clasping Venus’ Looking-glass

    ORDER CAPARALES

    Family Brassicaceae [Cruciferae] (mustard family):
  • Alliaria petiolata, Garlic Mustard [I]
  • Alyssum alyssoides, Pale Madwort [I]
  • Arabidopsis thaliana, Mouse-ear Cress [I]
  • Arabis canadensis, Sicklepod
  • Arabis drummondii, Drummond’s Rockcress
  • Arabis glabra, Tower Rockcress
  • Arabis laevigata, Smooth Rockcress
  • Arabis lyrata, Lyrate Rockcress
  • Arabis missouriensis, Green Rockcress [SC]
  • Armoracia rusticana, Horseradish [I]
  • Barbarea verna, Early Yellowrocket [I]
  • Barbarea vulgaris, Garden Yellowrocket [I]
  • Berteroa incana, Hoary Alyssum [I]
  • Brassica nigra, Black Mustard [I]
  • Cakile edentula, American Searocket
  • Camelina microcarpa, Littlepod False Flax [I]
  • Capsella bursa-pastoris, Shepherd’s Purse [I]
  • Cardamine bulbosa, Bulbous Bittercress
  • Cardamine (=Dentaria) concatenata (=laciniata), Cutleaf Toothwort
  • Cardamine (=Dentaria) diphylla, Crinkleroot
  • Cardamine douglassii, Limestone Bittercress
  • Cardamine hirsuta, Hairy Bittercress [I]
  • Cardamine pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Bittercress
  • Cardamine pratensis, Cuckoo Flower
  • Cardaria draba, Whitetop [I]
  • Coincya monensis, Star-mustard [I]
  • Descurainia pinnata, Western Tansymustard
  • Diplotaxis muralis, Annual Wallrocket [I]
  • Draba reptans, Carolina Draba [T (last observed 1931)]
  • Draba (=Erophila) verna, Spring Draba [I]
  • Erucastrum gallicum, Common Dogmustard [I]
  • Erysimum cheiranthoides, Wormseed Wallflower [I]
  • Hesperis matronalis, Dames Rocket [I]
  • Lepidium campestre, Field Pepperweed [I]
  • Lepidium densiflorum, Common Pepperweed
  • Lepidium virginicum, Virginia Pepperweed
  • Lunaria annua, Annual Honesty [I]
  • Nasturtium officinale, Watercress [I]
  • Raphanus raphanistrum, Wild Radish [I]
  • Raphanus sativa, Cultivated Radish [I]
  • Rorippa palustris, Bog Yellowcress
  • Rorippa sylvestris, Creeping Yellowcress [I]
  • Sinapis (=Brassica) alba, White Mustard [I]
  • Sinapis (=Brassica) arvensis (=kaber), Wild Mustard [I]
  • Sisymbrium altissimum, Tall Tumblemustard [I]
  • Sisymbrium officinale, Hedgemustard [I]
  • Teesdalia nudicaulis, Barestem Teesdalia [I]
  • Thlaspi arvense, Field Pennycress [I]

    Family Caparaceae (caper family):
  • Polanisia dodecandra, Redwhisker Clammyweed

    ORDER CARYOPHYLLALES

    Family Amaranthaceae (amaranth family):
  • Amaranthus albus, Prostrate Pigweed [I]
  • Amaranthus blitoides, Mat Amaranth [I]
  • Amaranthus hybridus, Slim Amaranth
  • Amaranthus powellii, Powell’s Amaranth
  • Amaranthus retroflexus, Redroot Amaranth
  • Amaranthus tuberculatus, Roughfruit Amaranth
  • Froelichia gracilis, Slender Snakecotton

    Family Cactaceae (cactus family):
  • Opuntia humifusa, Devil’s-tongue {s}

    Family Caryophyllaceae (pink family):
  • Agrostemma githago, Common Corncockle [I]
  • Arenaria serpyllifolia, Thymeleaf Sandwort [I]
  • Cerastium arvense, Field Chickweed [I?]
  • Cerastium fontanum, Common Mouse-ear Chickweed [I]
  • Cerastium semidecandrum, Fivestamen Chickweed [I]
  • Dianthus armeria, Deptford Pink [I]
  • Dianthus barbatus, Sweetwilliam [I]
  • Dianthus deltoides, Maiden Pink [I]
  • Herniaria glabra, Smooth Rupturewort [I]
  • Holosteum umbellatum, Jagged Chickweed [I]
  • Lychnis coronaria, Rose Campion [I]
  • Minuartia michauxii, Michaux’s Stitchwort
  • Moehringia lateriflora, Bluntleaf Sandwort
  • Paronychia canadensis, Smooth Forked Nailwort
  • Saponaria officinalis, Bouncingbet [I]
  • Scleranthus annuus, German Knotgrass [I]
  • Silene antirrhina, Sleepy Silene
  • Silene ameria, Sweet William Silene [I]
  • Silene conica, Striped Corn Catchfly [I]
  • Silene dichotoma, Forked Catchfly [I]
  • Silene latifolia, Bladder Campion [I]
  • Silene stellata, Widowsfrill [T
  • Silene vulgaris, Maidenstears [I]
  • Spergularia marina, Media Sandspurry [I]
  • Stellaria graminea, Grass-like Starwort [I]
  • Stellaria longifolia, Longleaf Starwort
  • Stelleria media (including pallida), Common Chickweed [I]
  • Vaccaria hispanica, Cow Soapwort [I]

    Family Molluginaceae (carpet-weed family):
  • Mollugo verticillata, Green Carpetweed

    Family Nyctaginaceae (four o’clock family):
  • Mirabilis linearis, Narrowleaf Four o’clock
  • Mirabilis nyctaginea, Heartleaf Four o’clock

    Family Phytolacaceae (pokeweed family):
  • Phytolacca americana, American Pokeweed

    Family Portulacaceae (purslane family):
  • Claytonia virginica, Virginia Springbeauty
  • Portulaca oleracea, Little Hogweed [I]

    ORDER CELASTRALES

    Family Aquifoliaceae (holly family):
  • Ilex (=Nemopanthus) mucronata (=mucronatus), Catberry {s/t}
  • Ilex verticillata, Common Winterberry {s/t}

    Family Celastraceae (bittersweet family):
  • Celastrus orbiculata, Oriental Bittersweet [I] {v}
  • Celastrus scandens, American Bittersweet {v}
  • Euonymus alatus (=alata), Burningbush [I] {s}
  • Euonymus europaeus (=europaea), European Spindletree [I] {s/t}
  • Euonymus hamiltonianus (=hamiltoniana), Hamilton’s Spindletree [I] {s/t}
  • Euonymus obovatus (=obovata), Running Strawberry Bush {ss/s/v}

    ORDER CHENOPODIALES

    Family Chenopodiaceae (goosefoot family):
  • Atriplex patula, Spear Saltbush [I]
  • Chenopodium album, Lambsquarters [I?]
  • Chenopodium (=Dysphania) ambrosioides, Mexican Tea [I]
  • Chenopodium (=Dysphania) botrys, Jerusalem Oak Goosefoot [I]
  • Chenopodium simplex, Mapleleaf Goosefoot
  • Chenopodium subglabrum, Smooth Goosefoot
  • Corispermum pallasi, Siberian Bugseed [I]
  • Cycloloma atriplicifolium, Winged Pigweed
  • Bassia (=Kochia) scoparia, Burningbush [I]
  • Salsola tragus, Prickly Russian Thistle [I]

    ORDER CORNALES

    Family Cornaceae [including Nyssaceae] (dogwood family):
  • Cornus alternifolia, Alternateleaf Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus amomum, Silky Dogwood {s}
  • Cornus canadensis, Bunchberry Dogwood {f/h/ss/s}
  • Cornus florida, Flowering Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus foemina, Stiff Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus rugosa, Roundleaf Dogwood {s/t}
  • Cornus sericea (=stolonifera), Redosier Dogwood {s/t}
  • Nyssa sylvatica, Blackgum {t}

    ORDER DIPSACALES

    Family Caprifoliaceae (honeysuckle family):
  • Diervilla lonicera, Northern Bush Honeysuckle {s}
  • Linnaea borealis, Twinflower {f/h/ss}
  • Lonicera canadensis, American Fly Honeysuckle {s}
  • Lonicera dioica, Limber Honeysuckle {v}
  • Lonicera japonica, Japanese Honeysuckle [I] {v}
  • Lonicera maackii, Amur Honeysuckle [I] {s}
  • Lonicera morrowii, Morrow’s Honeysuckle [I] {s}
  • Lonicera tatarica, Tatarian Honeysuckle [I] {s}
  • Lonicera xylosteum, Dwarf Honeysuckle [I] {s}
  • Sambucus nigra (=canadensis), Black Elderberry [I?] {s/t}
  • Sambucus racemosa, Red Elderberry {s/t}
  • Symphoricarpos albus, Common Snowberry {ss/s}
  • Symphoricarpos orbiculatus, Coralberry {s}
  • Triosteum aurantiacum, Orangefruit Horse-gentian
  • Triosteum perfoliatum, Feverwort
  • Viburnum acerifolium, Mapleleaf Viburnum {ss/s}
  • Viburnum dentatum, Southern Arrow-wood {s/t}
  • Viburnum lentago, Nannyberry {s/t}
  • Viburnum nudum (=cassinoides), Withe-rod {s/t}
  • Viburnum opulus, American Cranberrybush {s/t}
  • Viburnum prunifolium, Blackhaw [SC] {s/t}
  • Viburnum rafinesqueanum (=rafinesquianum), Downy Arrow-wood {s}

    Family Dipsacaceae (teasel family):
  • Dipsacus fullonum, Fuller’s Teasel [I]
  • Dipsacus laciniatus, Cutleaf Teasel [I]

    Family Valerianaceae (valerian family):
  • Valeriana edulis, Tobacco Root [T]
  • Valeriana officinalis, Garden Vallerian [I]
  • Valerianella chenopodiifolia, Goosefoot Cornsalad [T]
  • Valerianella locusta, Lewiston Cornsalad [I]

    ORDER ERICALES

    Family Ericaceae (heath family):
  • Andromeda polifolia (=glaucophylla), Bog Rosemary {ss/s}
  • Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Kinnickinnick {ss/s}
  • Chamaedaphne calyculata, Leatherleaf {s}
  • Epigaea repens, Trailing Arbutus {ss/s}
  • Gaultheria procumbens, Eastern Teaberry {ss/s}
  • Gaylussacia baccata, Black Huckleberry {s}
  • Vaccinium angustifolium, Lowbush Blueberry {ss/s}
  • Vaccinium corymbosum, Highbush Cranberry {s}
  • Vaccinium macrocarpon, Cranberry {ss/s}
  • Vaccinium oxycoccos, Small Cranberry {ss/s}
  • Vaccinium pallidum, Blue Ridge Blueberry {ss/s}

    Family Monotropaceae (Indian-pipe family):
  • Monotropa hypopithys, Pinesap
  • Monotropa uniflora, Indianpipe

    Family Pyrolaceae (shinleaf family):
  • Chimaphila maculata, Striped Prince’s Pine {ss}
  • Chimaphila umbellata, Pipsissewa {ss}
  • Orthilia secunda, Sidebells Wintergreen {ss}
  • Pyrola americana (=rotundifolia), American Wintergreen {ss}
  • Pyrola assarifolia, Liverleaf Wintergreen {ss}
  • Pyrola elliptica, Waxflower Shinleaf {ss}

    ORDER EUPHORBIALES

    Family Euphorbiaceae (spurge family):
  • Acalypha gracilens, Slender Threeseed Mercury
  • Acalypha rhomboidea, Common Threeseed Mercury
  • Chamaesyce (=Euphorbia) maculata, Spotted Sandmat
  • Chamaesyce (=Euphorbia) natans, Eyebane
  • Chamaesyce (=Euphorbia) polygonifolia, Seaside Sandmat
  • Chamaesyce (=Euphorbia) vermiculata, Wormseed Sandmat
  • Croton glandulosus, Vente Conmigo
  • Euphorbia commutata, Tinted Woodland Spurge [T]
  • Euphorbia corollata, Flowering Spurge
  • Euphorbia cyparissias, Cypress Spurge [I]
  • Euphorbia davidii, David’s Spurge [I]
  • Euphorbia esula, Leafy Spurge [I]

    ORDER FABALES

    Family Fabaceae [=Leguminoceae] (pea family):
  • Amorpha canescens, Leadplant^ [SC] {ss/s}
  • Amphicarpaea bracteata, American Hogpeanut
  • Apios americana, Groundnut
  • Astragalus canadensis, Canadian Milkvetch [T (last observed 1917)]
  • Baptisia alba (=lacteal), Largeleaf Wild Indigo [SC]
  • Cassia nictitans, Sensitive Partridge Pea
  • Cercis canadensis, Eastern Redbud {s/t}
  • Chamaecrista (=Cassia) fasciculate (=chamaecrista), Partridge Pea
  • Crotalaria sagittalis, Arrowhead Rattlebox
  • Desmodium canadense, Showy Ticktrefoil
  • Desmodium canescens, Hoary Ticktrefoil
  • Desmodium ciliare, Hairy Small-leaf Ticktrefoil
  • Desmodium cuspidatum, Largebract Ticktrefoil
  • Desmodium glutinosum, Pointedleaf Ticktrefoil
  • Desmodium illinoense, Illinois Ticktrefoil
  • Desmodium marilandicum, Smooth Small-leaf Ticktrefoil
  • Desmodium nudiflorum, Nakedflower Ticktrefoil
  • Desmodium obtusum, Stiff Ticktrefoil
  • Desmodium paniculatum, Panicleleaf Ticktrefoil
  • Desmodium rotundifolium, Prostrate Ticktrefoil
  • Desmodium sessilifolium, Sessileleaf Ticktrefoil
  • Gleditsia triacanthos, Honeylocust {s/t}
  • Glycine max, Soybean [I]
  • Gymnocladus dioicus, Kentucky Coffeetree [SC] {t}
  • Lathyrus japonicus, Beach Pea
  • Lathyrus latifolius, Perennial Pea [I]
  • Lathyrus ochroleucus, Cream Pea
  • Lathyrus palustris, Marsh Pea
  • Lathyrus venosus, Veiny Pea
  • Lespedeza capitata, Roundleaf Lespedeza
  • Lespedeza hirta, Hairy Lespedeza
  • Lespedeza violacea, Violet Lespedeza
  • Lespedeza virginica, Slender Lespedeza
  • Lotus corniculata, Bird’s-foot Trefoil
  • Lupinus perennis, Sundial Lupine
  • Medicago lupulina, Black Medick [I]
  • Medicago sativa, Alfalfa [I]
  • Melilotus officinalis (including albus [=alba]), Yellow Sweetclover [I]
  • Robinia hispida, Bristly Locust {s/t}
  • Robinia pseudoacacia, Black Locust {t}
  • Robinia viscosa, Clammy Locust {s/t}
  • Securigera (=Coronilla) varia, Crownvetch [I]
  • Strophostyles helvula, Amberique-bean [SC]
  • Tephrosia virginiana, Virginia Tephrosia
  • Trifolium arvense, Rabbitfoot Clover [I]
  • Trifolium aureum, Golden Clover [I]
  • Trifolium campestre, Field Clover [I]
  • Trifolium dubium, Suckling Clover [I]
  • Trifolium hybridum, Alsike Clover [I]
  • Trifolium pratense, Red Clover [I]
  • Trifolium repens, White Clover [I]
  • Vicia americana, American Vetch
  • Vicia caroliniana, Carolina Vetch
  • Vicia vilosa, Winter Vetch [I]
  • Vigna unguiculata, Blackeyed Pea [I]

    Family Betulaceae (birch family):
  • Alnus incana, Gray Alder {s/t}
  • Betula alleghaniensis, Yellow Birch {t}
  • Betula papyrifera, Paper Birch {t}
  • Betula pendula, European White Birch [I] {t}
  • Betula pumila, Bog Birch {s}
  • Carpinus caroliniana, American Hornbeam {s/t}
  • Corylus americana, American Hazelnut {s}
  • Ostrya virginiana, Hophornbeam {s/t}

    Family Fagaceae (beech family):
  • Castanea dentate, American Chestnut^ [E] {t}
  • Fagus grandifolia, American Beech {t}
  • Quercus alba, White Oak {t}
  • Quercus bicolor, Swamp White Oak {t}
  • Quercus imbricaria, Shingle Oak {t}
  • Quercus macrocarpa, Bur Oak {s/t}
  • Quercus muehlenbergii, Chinkapin Oak {t}
  • Quercus palustris, Pin Oak {t}
  • Quercus rubra, Northern Red Oak {t}
  • Quercus velutina, Black Oak {t}

    ORDER GENTIANALES

    Family Apocynaceae (dogbane family):
  • Apocynum androsaemifolium, Spreading Dogbane
  • Apocynum cannabinum, Indianhemp
  • Vinca minor, Common Periwinkle [I] {f/h/v}

    Family Gentianaceae (gentian family):
  • Bartonia virginica, Yellow Screwstem
  • Centaurium erythraea, European Centaury [I]
  • Centaurium pulchellum, Branched Centaury [I]
  • Frasera caroliniensis, American Columbo
  • Gentiana alba, Plain Gentian
  • Gentiana andrewsii, Closed Bottle Gentian
  • Gentiana saponaria, Harvestbells [X (last observed 1867)]
  • Gentianella quinquefolia, Aquaweed [T]
  • Gentianopsis crinita, Greater Fringed Gentian
  • Gentianopsis virgata, Lesser Fringed Gentian
  • Sabatia angularis, Rosepink [T]

    ORDER GERANIALES

    Family Balsaminaceae (touch-me-not family):
  • Impatiens capensis, Jewelweed
  • Impatiens pallida, Pale Touch-me-not

    Family Geraniaceae (gerianum family):
  • Erodium cicutarium, Redstem Stork’s Bill [I]
  • Geranium bicknellii, Bicknell’s Cranesbill
  • Geranium carolinianum, Carolina Geranium
  • Geranium columbinum, Longstalk Cranesbill [I]
  • Geranium maculatum, Spotted Geranium
  • Geranium molle, Dovefoot Geranium [I]
  • Geranium pusillum, Small Geranium [I]
  • Geranium robertianum, Robert Geranium [I?]

    Family Limnanthaceae (meadow-foam family):
  • Floerkea proserpinacoides, False Mermaidweed

    Family Oxalidaceae (wood-sorrel family):
  • Oxalis corniculata, Creeping Woodsorrel
  • Oxalis stricta (including fontana), Common Yellow Oxalis
  • Oxalis violacea, Violet Woodsorrel [T (last observed 1964)]

    ORDER HALORAGALES

    Family Haloragaceae (water milfoil family):
  • Myriophyllum heterophyllum, Twoleaf Watermilfoil
  • Myriophyllum sibiricum, Shortspike Watermilfoil
  • Myriophyllum verticillatum, Whorl-leaf Watermilfoil
  • Proserpinaca palustris, Marsh Mermaidweed

    ORDER HAMAMELIDALES

    Family Hamamelidaceae (witch-hazel family):
  • Hamamelis virginiana, American Witchhazel {s/t}

    Family Platanaceae (plane-tree family):
  • Platanus occidentalis, American Sycamore {t}

    ORDER LAMIALES

    Family Boraginaceae (borage family):
  • Buglossoides (=Lithospermum) arvensis (=arvense), Corn Gromwell [I]
  • Cynoglossum officinale, Gypsyflower [I]
  • Echium vulgare, Common Viper’s Buglos [I]
  • Hackelia virginiana, Beggarslice
  • Lithospermum canescens, Hoary Puccoon
  • Lithospermum caroliniense, Carolina Puccoon
  • Myosotis discolor, Changing Forget-me-not [I]
  • Myosotis scorpioides, True Forget-me-not [I]
  • Onosmodium bejariense (=molle), Softhair Marbleseed [X (last observed 1838)]
  • Symphytum officinale, Common Comfrey [I]

    Family Lamiaceae [=Labiateae] (mint family):
  • Acinos arvensis, Basil Thyme [I]
  • Agastache nepetoides, Yellow Giant Hyssop {f/h/ss}
  • Ajuga reptans, Common Bugle [I]
  • Blephilia ciliata, Downy Pagoda-plant
  • Blephilia hirsuta, Hairy Pagoda-plant
  • Clinopodium vulgare, Wild Basil
  • Glechoma hederacea, Ground Ivy [I]
  • Hedeoma hispida, Rough False Pennyroyal
  • Hedeoma pulegioides, American False Pennyroyal
  • Lamium amplexicaule, Henbit Deadnettle [I]
  • Lamium purpureum, Purple Deadnettle [I]
  • Leonurus cardiaca, Common Motherwort [I]
  • Lycopus americanus, American Water Horehound
  • Lycopus asper, Rough Bugleweed
  • Lycopus rubellus, Taperleaf Water Horehound
  • Lycopus uniflorus, Northern Bugleweed
  • Marrubium vulgare, Horehound [I] {f/h/ss}
  • Melissa officinalis, Common Balm [I]
  • Mentha arvensis, Wild Mint
  • Mentha piperita (=aquatica x spicata), Spearmint
  • Mentha spicata, Spearmint [I]
  • Mentha suaveolens, Apple Mint [I]
  • Mentha villosa (=spicata x suaveolens)
  • Monarda fistulosa, Wild Bergamot {f/h/ss}
  • Monarda punctata, Spotted Beebalm {f/h/ss}
  • Nepeta cataria, Catnip [I]
  • Origanum vulgare, Oregano [I]
  • Physostegia virginiana, Obediant Plant
  • Prunella vulgaris, Common Selfheal
  • Pycnanthemum muticum, Clustered Mountainmint [T]
  • Pycnanthemum tenuifolium, Narrowleaf Mountainmint
  • Pycnanthemum verticillatum (including pilosum), Whorled Mountainmint [SC/T]
  • Pycnanthemum virginianum, Virginia Mountainmint
  • Satureja hortensis, Summer Savory [I]
  • Scutellaria elliptica, Hairy Skullcap [SC]
  • Scutellaria galericulata, Marsh Skullcap
  • Scutellaria lateriflora, Blue Skullcap
  • Scutellaria parvula, Small Skullcap [T]
  • Stachys hyssopifolia, Hyssopleaf Hedgenettle
  • Stachys tenuifolia, Smooth Hedgenettle
  • Teucrium canadense, Canada Germander

    Family Verbenaceae (verbena family):
  • Glandularia (=Verbena) canadensis, Rose Mock Vervain
  • Phryma leptostachya, American Lopseed
  • Phyla lanceolata, Lanceleaf Fogfruit
  • Verbena bracteata, Bigbract Verbena
  • Verbena hastata, Swamp Verbena
  • Verbena stricta, Hoary Verbena
  • Verbena urticifolia, White Vervain

    ORDER LAURALES

    Family Lauraceae (laurel family):
  • Lindera benzoin, Northern Spicebush {s/t}
  • Sassafras albidum, Sassafras {s/t}

    ORDER LINALES

    Family Linaceae (flax family):
  • Linum medium, Stiff Yellow Flax
  • Linum striatum, Ridged Yellow Flax
  • Linum usitallisimum, Common Flax [I]
  • Linum virginianum, Woodland Flax [T (last observed 1867)]

    ORDER MAGNOLIALES

    Family Ammonaceae (custard-apple family):
  • Asimina triloba, Pawpaw {s/t}

    Family Magnoliaceae (magnolia family):
  • Liriodendron tulipifera, Tuliptree {t}

    ORDER MALVALES

    Family Malvaceae (mallow family):
  • Abelmoschus esculentus, Okra [I] {f/h/ss}
  • Abutilon theophrasti, Velvetleaf [I]
  • Alcea rosea, Hollyhock [I]
  • Althaea officinalis, Common Marshmallow [I]
  • Hibiscus moscheutos, Crimsoneyed Rosemallow [SC] {f/h/ss}
  • Malva moschata, Musk Mallow [I]
  • Malva neglecta, Common Mallow [I]
  • Malva sylvestris, High Mallow [I]

    Family Tiliaceae (linden family):
  • Tilia americana, American Basswood {t}

    ORDER MYRICALES

    Family Myricaceae (bayberry family):
  • Comptonia peregrina, Sweet Fern {ss/s}

    ORDER MYRTALES

    Family Lythraceae (loosestrife family):
  • Decodon verticillatus, Swamp Loosestrife {ss/s}
  • Lythrum alatum, Winged Lythrum {f/h/ss}
  • Lythrum salicaria, Purple Loosestrife [I] {f/h/ss}
  • Rotala ramosior, Lowland Rotala [SC]

    Family Melastomataceae (melastome family):
  • Rhexia virginica, Handsome Harry [SC]

    Family Onagraceae (evening primrose family):
  • Chamerion (=Epilobium) angustifolium, Fireweed
  • Circaea alpina, Small Enchanter’s Nightshade
  • Circaea lutetiana, Broadleaf Enchanter’s Nightshade
  • Epilobium coloratum, Purpleleaf Willowherb
  • Epilobium hirsutum, Codlins and Cream [I]
  • Epilobium leptophyllum, Bog Willowherb
  • Gaura biennis, Biennial Beeblossom
  • Ludwigia alternifolia, Seedbox [SC]
  • Ludwigia palustris, Marsh Seedbox
  • Oenothera biennis, Common Evening Primrose
  • Oenothera clelandii, Cleland’s Evening Primrose
  • Oenothera fruticosa, Narrowleaf Evening Primrose
  • Oenothera laciniata, Cutleaf Evening Primrose
  • Oenothera oakesiana, Oakes’s Evening Primrose
  • Oenothera parviflora, Northern Evening Primrose
  • Oenothera perennis, Little Evening Primrose
  • Oenothera pilosella, Meadow Evening Primrose
  • Oenothera villosa, Hairy Evening Primrose

    Family Thymelaeaceae (mezereum family):
  • Dirca palustris, Eastern Leatherwood {s}

    ORDER NEPENTHALES

    Family Droseraceae (sundew family):
  • Drosera intermedia, Spoonleaf Sundew
  • Drosera rotundifolia, Roundleaf Sundew

    Family Sarraceniaceae (pitcher-plant family):
  • Sarracenia purpurea, Purple Pitcherplant {f/h/ss}

    ORDER NYMPHAEALES

    Family Cabombaceae (water-shield family):
  • Brasenia schreberi, Watershield

    Family Ceratophyllaceae (hornwort family):
  • Ceratophyllum demersum, Coon’s Tail

    Family Nelumbonaceae (lotus-lily family):
  • Nelumbo lutea, American Lotus^ [T]

    Family Nymphaeaceae (water-lily family):
  • Nuphar lutea (=advena; includes variegata), Yellow Pond-lily
  • Nymphaea odorata, American White Waterlily

    ORDER PAPAVERALES

    Family Fumariaceae (fumitory family):
  • Adlumia fungosa, Allegheny Vine [SC] {f/h/v}
  • Corydalis flavula, Yellow Fumewort [T]
  • Corydalis sempervirens, Rock Harlequin
  • Dicentra canadensis, Squirrel Corn
  • Dicentra cucullaria, Dutchman’s Britches

    Family Papaveraceae (poppy family):
  • Chelidonium majus, Celandine [I]
  • Sanguinaria canadensis, Bloodroot
  • Stylophorum diphyllum, Celandine Poppy

    ORDER PIPERALES

    Family Saururaceae (lizard’s-tail family):
  • Saururus cernuus, Lizard’s Tail

    ORDER PLANTAGINALES

    Family Plantaginaceae (plantain family):
  • Plantago aristata, Largebracted Plantain
  • Plantago lanceolata, Narrowleaf Plantain [I]
  • Plantago major, Common Plantain [I]
  • Plantago psyllium (=arenaria), Sand Plantain [I]
  • Plantago rugelii, Blackseed Plantain
  • Plantago virginica, Virginia Plantain

    ORDER POLYGALALES

    Family Polygalaceae (milkwort family):
  • Polygala cruciata, Drumheads [SC]
  • Polygala polygama, Racemed Milkwort
  • Polygala sanguinea, Purple Milkwort
  • Polygala senega, Seneca Snakewort
  • Polygala verticillata, Whorled Milkwort

    Family Polygonaceae (buckwheat family):
  • Fagopyrum esculentum, Buckwheat [I]
  • Polygonella articulata, Coastal Jointweed
  • Polygonum achoreum, Leathery Knotweed
  • Polygonum amphibium, Water Knotweed
  • Polygonum arifolium, Halberdleaf Tearthumb {f/h/v}
  • Polygonum aviculare, Prostrate Knotweed [I]
  • Polygonum careyi, Carey’s Smartweed
  • Polygonum cilinode, Fringed Black Bindweed {f/h/v}
  • Polygonum convolvulus, Black Bindweed [I] {f/h/v}
  • Polygonum cuspidatum, Japanese Knotweed [I] {f/h/ss}
  • Polygonum hydropiper, Marshpepper Knotweed
  • Polygonum hydropiperoides, Swamp Smartweed
  • Polygonum lapathifolium, Curlytop Knotweed
  • Polygonum pensylvanicum, Pennsylvania Smartweed
  • Polygonum persicaria, Spotted Ladysthumb [I]
  • Polygonum punctatum, Dotted Smartweed
  • Polygonum sagittatum, Arrowleaf Tearthum {f/h/v}
  • Polygonum scandens, Climbing False Buckwheat [I?] {f/h/v}
  • Polygonum tenue, Pleatleaf Knotweed
  • Polygonum virginianum, Jumpseed
  • Rumex acetosella, Common Sheep Sorrel [I]
  • Rumex altissimus, Pale Dock
  • Rumex crispus, Curly Dock [I]
  • Rumex obtusifolius, Bitter Dock [I]
  • Rumex orbiculatus, Greater Water Dock
  • Rumex verticillatus, Swamp Dock

    ORDER PRIMULALES

    Family Primulaceae (primrose family):
  • Anagallis arvensis, Scarlet Pimpernel [I]
  • Androsace occidentalis, Western Rockjasmine [E (last observed 1931)]
  • Dodecatheon meadia, Pride of Ohio [E]
  • Lysimachia ciliata, Fringed Loosestrife
  • Lysimachia lanceolata, Lanceleaf Loosestrife
  • Lysimachia nummularia, Creeping Jenny
  • Lysimachia quadriflora, Fourflower Yellow Loosestrife
  • Lysimachia quadrifolia, Whorled Yellow Loosestrife
  • Lysimachia terrestris, Earth Loosestrife
  • Lysimachia thyrsilora, Tufted Loosestrife
  • Samolus valerandi (=parviflorus), Seaside Brookweed [I?]
  • Trientalis borealis, Starflower

    ORDER RANUNCULALES

    Family Berberidaceae (barberry family):
  • Berberis thunbergii, Japanese Barberry [I] {s}
  • Berberis vulgaris, Common Barberry [I] {s}
  • Caulophyllum thalictroides, Blue Cohosh
  • Jeffersonia diphylla, Twinleaf [SC]
  • Podophyllum peltatum, Mayapple

    Family Menispermaceae (moonseed family):
  • Menispermum canadense, Common Moonseed {v}

    Family Ranunculaceae (buttercup family):
  • Actaea pachypoda, White Baneberry
  • Actaea rubra, Red Baneberry
  • Anemone canadensis, Canadian Anemone
  • Anemone cylindrica, Candle Anemone
  • Anemone quinquefolia, Wood Anemone
  • Anemone virginiana, Tall Thimbleweed
  • Aquilegia canadensis, Red Columbine
  • Aquilegia vulgaris, European Columbine [I]
  • Caltha palustris, Yellow Marsh Marigold
  • Clematis virginiana, Devil’s Darning Needles {v}
  • Consolida ajacis, Doubtful Knight’s-spur [I]
  • Coptis trifolia, Threeleaf Goldthread
  • Enemion biternatum, Eastern False Rue Enemone
  • Hepatica (=Anemone) nobilis (=acutiloba & americana), Sharplobe / Roundlobe Hepatica
  • Hydrastis canadensis, Goldenseal [T]
  • Ranunculus abortivus, Littleleaf Buttercup
  • Ranunculus acris, Tall Buttercup [I?]
  • Ranunculus aquatilis, White Water Crowfoot
  • Ranunculus fascicularis, Early Buttercup
  • Ranunculus flabellaris, Yellow Water Buttercup
  • Ranunculus hispidis, Bristly Buttercup
  • Ranunculus pensylvanicus, Pennsylvania Buttercup
  • Ranunculus recurvatus, Blisterwort
  • Ranunculus repens, Creeping Buttercup
  • Ranunculus sceleratus, Cursed Buttercup
  • Thalictrum dasycarpum, Purple Meadow-rue
  • Thalictrum dioicum, Early Meadow-rue
  • Thalictrum thalictroides, Rue Anemone

    ORDER RHAMNALES

    Family Elaeagnaceae (oleaster family):
  • Elaeagnus umbellata, Autumn Olive [I] {s}
  • Shepherdia canadensis, Russet Buffaloberry {s}

    Family Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family):
  • Ceanothus americanus, New Jersey Tea {ss/s}
  • Frangula (=Rhamnus) alnus (=frangula), Glossy Buckthorn [I] {s/t}
  • Rhamnus alnifolia, Alderleaf Buckthorn {s}
  • Rhamnus cathartica, Common Buckthorn [I] {s/t}

    Family Vitaceae (grape family):
  • Parthenocissus quinquefolia (including inserta), Virginia Creeper {v}
  • Vitis aestivalis, Summer Grape {v}
  • Vitis labrusca, Fox Grape {v}
  • Vitis riparia, Riverbank Grape {v}
  • Vitis vulpina, Frost Grape [T] {v}

    ORDER ROSALES

    Family Crassulaceae [including Penthoraceae] (stonecrop family):
  • Hylotelephium (=Sedum) telephium, Witch’s Moneybags [I]
  • Penthorum sedoides, Ditch Stonecrop
  • Sedum acre, Goldmoss Stonecrop [I]
  • Sedum album, White Stonecrop [I]
  • Sedum sarmentosum, Stringy Stonecrop [I]
  • Sedum spurium, Tworow Stonecrop [I]
  • Sedum ternatum, Woodland Stonecrop

    Family Grossulariaceae (currant family):
  • Ribes americanum, American Black Currant {s}
  • Ribes aureum (=odoratum), Golden Currant {s}
  • Ribes cynosbati, Eastern Prickly Gooseberry {s}
  • Ribes hirtellum, Hairystem Gooseberry {s}

    Family Rosaceae (rose family):
  • Agrimonia gryposepala, Tall Hairy Agrimony
  • Agrimonia parviflora, Harvestlice
  • Agrimonia pubescens, Soft Agrimony
  • Amelanchier arborea, Common Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier interior, Pacific Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier laevis, Allegheny Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Amelanchier sanguinea, Roundleaf Serviceberry {s/t}
  • Argentina (=Potentilla) anserine, Silverweed Cinquefoil
  • Comarum (=Potentilla) palustre (=palustris), Purple Marshlocks
  • Crataegus calpodendron, Pear Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus crus-galli, Cockspur Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus dodgei, Dodge’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus holmesiana, Holmes’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus margarettiae, Margarett’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus pedicellata, Scarlet Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus pringlei, Pringle’s Hawthorn {s/t}
  • Crataegus punctata, Dotted Hawtorhn {s/t}
  • Dasiphora (=Potentilla) fruticosa, Shrubby Cinquefoil
  • Duchesnea indica, Indian Strawberry [I]
  • Filipendula rubra, Queen of the Prairie [T]
  • Fragaria virginiana, Virginia Strawberry
  • Geum aleppicum, Yellow Avens
  • Geum canadense, White Avens
  • Geum laciniatum, Rough Avens
  • Geum rivale, Purple Avens
  • Malus coronaria, Sweet Crab Apple {s/t}
  • Malus ioensis, Prairie Crab Apple {s/t}
  • Malus pumila, Paradise Apple [I] {t}
  • Photonia (=Aronia) floribunda (=prunifolia), Purple Chokeberry {s}
  • Physocarpus opulifolius, Common Ninebark {s}
  • Potentilla argentea, Silver Cinquefoil [I]
  • Potentilla arguta, Tall Cinquefoil {f/h/ss}
  • Potentilla inclinata, Ashy Cinquefoil [I]
  • Potentilla norvegica, Norwegian Cinquefoil
  • Potentilla recta, Sulphur Cinquefoil [I]
  • Potentilla simplex, Common Cinquefoil
  • Prunus americana, American Plum {s/t}
  • Prunus avium, Sweet Cherry [I] {t}
  • Prunus domestica, European Plum [I] {t}
  • Prunus mahaleb, Mahaleb Cherry [I] {s/t}
  • Prunus pensylvanica, Pin Cherry {s/t}
  • Prunus pumila, Sandcherry {s}
  • Prunus serotina, Black Cherry {s/t}
  • Prunus virginiana, Chokecherry {s/t}
  • Pyrus communis, Common Pear [I] {t}
  • Rosa acicularia, Prickly Rose {ss}
  • Rosa blanda, Smooth Rose {ss}
  • Rosa carolina, Carolina Rose {ss}
  • Rosa cinnamomea, Cinnamon Rose [I] {ss}
  • Rosa eglanteria, Sweetbriar Rose [I] {ss}
  • Rosa multiflora, Multiflora Rose [I] {ss/v}
  • Rosa palustris, Swamp Rose {ss}
  • Rosa rugosa, Rugosa Rose [I] {ss}
  • Rosa setigera, Climbing Rose {ss/v}
  • Rubus allegheniensis, Allegheny Blackberry {ss}
  • Rubus flagellaris, Northern Dewberry {ss}
  • Rubus hispidus, Bristly Dewberry {ss}
  • Rubus idaeus (=strigosus), Grayleaf Red Raspberry {ss}
  • Rubus laciniatus, Cutleaf Blackberry [I] {ss/v}
  • Rubus occidentalis, Black Raspberry {ss}
  • Rubus pensilvanicus, Pennsylvania Blackberry {ss}
  • Rubus pubescens, Dwarf Red Blackberry {f/h/ss}
  • Spiraea alba, White Meadowsweet {s}
  • Spiraea tomentosa, Steeplebush {s}

    Family Saxifragaceae (saxifrage family):
  • Chrysosplenium americanum, American Golden Saxifrage
  • Heuchera americanum, American Alumroot
  • Heuchera richardsoni, Richardson’s Alumroot
  • Mitella diphylla, Twoleaf Miterwort
  • Mitella nuda, Naked Miterwort
  • Parnassia glauca, Fen Grass of Parnassius
  • Saxifraga pensylvanica, Eastern Swamp Saxifrage
  • Tiarella cordifolia, Heartleaf Foamflower

    ORDER RUBIALES

    Family Rubiaceae (madder family):
  • Cephalanthus occidentalis, Common Buttonbush {s/t}
  • Diodia teres, Poorjoe
  • Galium aparine, Stickywilly {f/h/v}
  • Galium asprellum, Rough Bedstraw
  • Galium boreale, Northern Bedstraw {f/h/ss}
  • Galium circaezans, Licorice Bedstraw
  • Galium concinnum, Shining Bedstraw
  • Galium labradorium, Northern Bog Bedstraw
  • Galium lanceolatum, Lanceleaf Wild Bedstraw
  • Galium mollugo, False Baby’s Breath [I]
  • Galium obtusum, Bluntleaf Bedstraw
  • Galium palustre, Common Marsh Bedstraw
  • Galium pilosum, Hairy Bedstraw
  • Galium tinctorium, Stiff Marsh Bedstraw
  • Galium trifidum, Threepetal Bedstraw {f/h/v}
  • Galium verum, Yellow Spring Bedstraw [I] {f/h/v}
  • Mitchella repens, Partridgeberry {f/h/ss}
  • Sherardia arvensis, Blue Fieldmadder [I]

    ORDER SALICALES

    Family Salicaceae (willow family):
  • Populus alba, White Poplar [I] {t}
  • Populus balsamifera, Balsam Poplar {t}
  • Populus deltoides, Eastern Cottonwood {t}
  • Populus grandidentata, Bigtooth Aspen {t}
  • Populus heterophylla, Swamp Cottonwood [E] {t}
  • Populus nigra, Lombardy Poplar [I] {t}
  • Populus tremuloides, Quacking Aspen {t}
  • Salix alba, White Willow [I] {t}
  • Salix amygdaloides, Peachleaf Willow {s/t}
  • Salix bebbiana, Bebb Willow {s/t}
  • Salix candida, Sageleaf Willow {s}
  • Salix cordata, Heartleaf Willow {s}
  • Salix discolor, Pussy Willow {s/t}
  • Salix eriocephala, Missouri River Willow {s/t}
  • Salix exigua, Narrowleaf Willow {s/t}
  • Salix fragilis, Crack Willow [I] {t}
  • Salix humilis, Prairie Willow {s}
  • Salix lucida, Shining Willow {s/t}
  • Salix myricoides, Bayberry Willow {s/t}
  • Salix nigra, Black Willow {t}
  • Salix pentandra, Laurel Willow [I] {t}
  • Salix petiolaris, Meadow Willow {s/t}
  • Salix purpurea, Purpleosier Willow [I] {s/t}
  • Salix sericea, Silky Willow {s/t}
  • Salix serissima, Autumn Willow {s/t}

    ORDER SANTALALES

    Family Santalaceae (sandalwood family):
  • Comandra umbellata, Bastard Toadflax {f/h/ss}

    ORDER SAPINDALES

    Family Aceraceae (maple family):
  • Acer negundo, Boxelder {t}
  • Acer platanoides, Norway Maple [I] {t}
  • Acer nigrum (=saccharum nigrum), Black Maple {t}
  • Acer rubrum, Red Maple {t}
  • Acer saccharinum, Silver Maple {t}
  • Acer saccharum, Sugar Maple {t}

    Family Anacardiaceae (sumac family):
  • Rhus pulvinata, Northern Smooth Sumac {t}
  • Rhus copallinum (=copallina), Winged Sumac {s/t}
  • Rhus glabra, Smooth Sumac {s/t}
  • Rhus typhina, Staghorn Sumac {s/t}
  • Toxicodendron radicans, Eastern Poison Ivy {f/h/ss/s/v}
  • Toxicodendron vernix, Poison Sumac {s/t}

    Family Hippocastanaceae (horse-chestnut family):
  • Aesculus glabra, Ohio Buckeye {t}
  • Aesculus hippocastatum, Horse Chestnut [I] {t}

    Family Rutaceae (rue family):
  • Ptelea trifoliata, Common Hoptree {s/t}
  • Xanthoxylum americanum, Common Pricklyash {s/t}

    Family Simaroubaceae (quassia family):
  • Ailanthus altissima, Tree of Heaven [I] {t}

    Family Staphyleaceae (bladdernut family):
  • Staphylea trifolia, American Bladdernut {s/t}

    Family Zygophyllaceae (creosote-bush family):
  • Tribulus terrestris, Puncturevine [I]

    ORDER SCROPHULARIALES

    Family Bignoniaceae (trumpet-creeper family):
  • Campsis radicans, Trumpet Creeper {v}
  • Catalpa speciosa, Northern Catalpa {t}

    Family Lentibulariaceae (bladderwort family):
  • Utricularia cornuta, Horned Bladderwort
  • Utricularia gibba, Humped Bladderwort
  • Utricularia inflata, Swollen Bladderwort^ [E]
  • Utricularia intermedia, Flatleaf Bladderwort
  • Utricularia macrorhiza (=vulgaris), Common Bladderwort
  • Utricularia minor, Lesser Bladderwort
  • Utricularia purpurea, Eastern Purple Bladderwort
  • Utricularia radiata, Little Floating Bladderwort
  • Utricularia subulata, Zigzag Bladderwort [T]

    Family Oleaceae (olive family):
  • Fraxinus americana, White Ash {t}
  • Fraxinus nigra, BlackAsh {t}
  • Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Green Ash {t}
  • Fraxinus profunda, Pumpkin Ash [T] {t}
  • Fraxinus quadrangulata, Blue Ash {t}
  • Ligustrum obtusifolium, Border Privet [I] {s}
  • Ligustrum vulgare, European Privet [I] {s}
  • Syringa vulgaris, Common Lilac [I] {s}

    Family Orobanchaceae (broom-rape family):
  • Conopholis americana, American Cancer-root
  • Epifagus virginiana, Beechdrops
  • Orobanche uniflora, Oneflowered Broomrape

    Family Scrophulariaceae (figwort family):
  • Agalinis purpurea, Purple False Foxglove
  • Agalinis tenuifolia, Slenderleaf False Foxglove
  • Aureolaria flava, Smooth Yellow False Foxglove
  • Aureolaria pedicularia, Fernleaf Yellow False Foxglove
  • Aureolaria virginica, Downy Yellow False Foxglove
  • Castilleja coccinea, Scarlet Indian Paintbrush
  • Chaenorrhinum minus, Dwarf Snapdragon [I]
  • Chelone glabra, White Turtlehead
  • Collinsia verna, Spring Blue Eyed Mary
  • Dasistoma macrophylla, Mullein Foxglove
  • Gratiola neglecta, Clammy Hedgehyssop
  • Gratiola virginiana, Roundfruit Hedgehyssop [T]
  • Kickxia elatine, Sharpleaf Cancerwort [I]
  • Linaria vulgaris, Butter and Eggs [I]
  • Lindernia dubia, Yellowseed False Pimpernel
  • Mazus miquelii (=reptans), Miquel’s Mazus [I]
  • Melampyrum lineare, Narroleaf Cow-wheat
  • Mimulus ringens, Allegheny Monkeyflower
  • Nuttallanthus (=Linaria) canadensis, Canadian Toadfax
  • Pedicularis canadensis, Canadian Lousewort
  • Pedicularis lanceolata, Swamp Lousewort
  • Penstemon digitalis, Talus Slope Penstemon
  • Penstemon hirsutus, Hairy Beardtongue
  • Scrophularia lanceolata, Lanceleaf Figwort
  • Scrophularia marilandica, Carpenter’s Square
  • Verbascum blattaria, Moth Mullein [I]
  • Verbascum thapsus, Common Mullein [I]
  • Veronica arvensis, Corn Speedwell [I]
  • Veronica beccabunda, European Speedwell [I]
  • Veronica officinalis, Common Gypsyweed [I]
  • Veronica peregrina, Neckweed
  • Veronica persica, Birdeye Speedwell [I]
  • Veronica polita, Gray Field Speedwell [I]
  • Veronica scutellata, Skullcap Speedwell
  • Veronica serpyllifolia, Thymeleaf Speedwell [I?]
  • Veronica verna, Spring Speedwell [I]
  • Veronicastrum virginicum, Culver’s Root

    ORDER SOLANALES

    Family Convolvulaceae (morning-glory family):
  • Calystegia sepsium, Hedge False Bindweed [I?] {f/h/v}
  • Calystegia silvatica, Shortstalk False Bindweed [I?] {f/h/v}
  • Convolvulus arvensis, Field Bindweed [I] {v}
  • Ipomoea pandurata, Man of the Earth [T] {f/h/v}
  • Ipomoea purpurea, Tall Morning-glory [I] {f/h/v}

    Family Cuscutaceae (dodder family):
  • Cuscuta campestris, Fiveangled Dodder^ [SC] {f/h/v}
  • Cuscuta cephalanthi, Buttonbush Dodder {f/h/v}
  • Cuscuta glomerata, Rope Dodder [SC (last observed 1906)] {f/h/v}
  • Cuscuta grovoni, Scaldweed {f/h/v}

    Family Hydrophyllaceae (waterleaf family):
  • Hydrophyllum appendiculatum, Great Waterleaf
  • Hydrophyllum canadense, Bluntleaf Waterleaf
  • Hydrophyllum virginanum, Eastern Waterleaf

    Family Menyanthaceae (buckbean family):
  • Menyanthes trifoliata, Buckbean

    Family Polemoniaceae (phlox family):
  • Ipomopsis rubra, Standing-cypress
  • Phlox divaricata, Wild Blue Phlox {f/h/ss/s}
  • Phlox maculata, Wild Sweetwilliam [T]
  • Phlox nivalis, Trailing Phlox {f/h/ss/s}
  • Phlox paniculata, Fall Phlox
  • Phlox pilosa, Downy Phlox {f/h/ss/s}
  • Phlox subulata, Moss Phlox {f/h/ss/s}
  • Polemonium reptans, Greek Valerian [T] {ss/f/h)

    Family Solanaceae (potato family):
  • Datura inoxia, Pricklyburr [I] {f/h/s}
  • Datura stramonium, Jimsonweed [I] {f/h/ss}
  • Petunia atkinsiana (=axillaries x integrifolia), Petunia [I]
  • Physalis heterophylla, Clammy Groundcherry
  • Physalis longifolia, Longleaf Groundcherry
  • Physalis virginiana, Virginia Groundcherry
  • Solanum carolinense, Carolina Horsenettle {f/h/ss}
  • Solanum dulcamara, Climbing Nightshade [I] {f/h/ss/v}
  • Solanum (=Lycopersicon) lycopersicon (=esculentum), Garden Tomato [I]
  • Solanum physalifolium, Hoe Nightshade [I]
  • Solanum ptycanthum (=ptychamthum), West Indian Nightshade
  • Solanum rostratum, Buffalobur Nightshade
  • Solanum tuberosum, Irish Potato [I] {f/h/ss}

    ORDER THEALES

    Family Clusiaceae [=Guttiferae] (mangosteen family):
  • Hypericum boreale, Northern St. Johnswort
  • Hypericum canadense, Lesser Canadian St. Johnswort
  • Hypericum gentianoides, Orangegrass [SC]
  • Hypericum kalmianum, Kalm’s St. Johnswort {s}
  • Hypericum majus, Large St. Johnswort
  • Hypericum mutilum, Dwarf St. Johnswort
  • Hypericum perforatum, Common St. Johnswort [I]
  • Hypericum prolificum, Shrubby St. Johnswort {ss/s}
  • Hypericum punctatum, Spotted St. Johnswort
  • Triadenum fraseri, Fraser’s Marsh St. Johnswort
  • Triadenum virginicum, Virginia Marsh St. Johnswort

    ORDER URTICALES

    Family Cannabaceae (hemp family):
  • Cannabis sativa, Marijuana [I]
  • Humulus lupulus, Common Hop [I?] {v}

    Family Moraceae (mulberry family):
  • Maclura pomifera, Osage Orange {s/t}
  • Morus alba, White Mulberry [I] {s/t}
  • Morus rubra, Red Mulberry [T] {t}

    Family Ulmaceae (elm family):
  • Celtis occidentalis, Common Hackberry {s/t}
  • Ulmus americana, American Elm {t}
  • Ulmus pumila, Siberian Elm [I] {s/t}
  • Ulmus rubra, Slippery Elm {t}

    Family Urticaceae (nettle family):
  • Boehmeria cylindrica, Smallspike False Nettle
  • Laportea canadensis, Canadian Woodnettle
  • Parietaria pensylvanica, Pennsylvania Pellitory
  • Pilea fontana, Lesser Clearweed
  • Pilea pumila, Canadian Clearweed
  • Urtica dioica, Stinging Nettle [I?]

    ORDER VIOLALES

    Family Cistaceae (rock-rose family):
  • Helianthemum bicknellii, Hoary Frostweed {f/h/ss}
  • Helianthemum canadense, Longbranch Frostweed {f/h/ss}
  • Hudsonia tomentosa, Woolly Beachfeather {ss/s}
  • Lechea mucronota (=villosa), Hairy Pinweed
  • Lechea pulchella, Leggett’s Pinweed [T]

    Family Cucurbitaceae (cucumber family):
  • Citrullus lanatus, Watermelon [I] {f/h/v}
  • Cucurbita foetidissima, Missouri Gourd {f/h/v}
  • Echinocystis lobata, Wild Cucumber {f/h/v}
  • Sicyos angulatus, Oneseed Bur Cucumber {f/h/v}

    Family Violaceae (violet family):
  • Hybanthus concolor, Eastern Greenviolet [SC]
  • Viola affinis, Sand Violet
  • Viola arvensis, European Field Pansy [I]
  • Viola blanda, Sweet White Violet
  • Viola canadensis, Canadian White Violet
  • Viola labradorica (=conspersa), Alpine Violet
  • Viola cucullata, Marsh Blue Violet
  • Viola lanceolata, Bog White Violet
  • Viola macloskeyi, Small White Violet
  • Viola nephrophylla, Northern Bog Violet
  • Viola odorata, Sweet Violet [I]
  • Viola palmata (=brittonia or pedatifida x affinis or socoria), Early Blue Violet
  • Viola pedata, Birdfoot Violet
  • Viola pubescens, Downy Yellow Violet
  • Viola rostrata, Longspur Violet
  • Viola sagittata, Arrowleaf Violet
  • Viola sororia, Common Blue Violet
  • Viola striata, Striped Cream Violet
  • Viola tricolor, Johnny Jumpup [I]
  •